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hn>f]t
 
g]kfndf hnljB't ljsf;sf] oyfy{tf

– O{=cgGtaxfb'/ u'¿ª

g]kfndf hnljB't ljsf;sf] 7"nf] ;+efjgf 5 . ;bfaxf/ gbL / le/fnf] e"agf]6n] ubf{ ;+;f/s} 7"nf dWo]sf hnljB't cfof]hgfx?sf] ljsf; g]kfndf ug{ ;lsG5 . ;a}eGbf kl5Nnf] cg'dfgd'tfljs cfly{s lx;fan] ljsf; ug{ ;lsg] ;+efjgf ePsf] g]kfnsf] hnljB't $) xhf/ d]ufjf6 b]lvPsf] 5 . o:tf] ckf/ hnljB'tsf] ;+efjgf ePtf klg g]kfnn] xfn;Dd s]jn ^)) d]ufjf6 hnljB't dfq pTkfbg ug{ ;s]sf] 5 . cem;Dd klg g]kfnn] cfly{s?kn] ;+ej ePsf] 7"nf] lx:;f hnljB't ljsf; ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . ;fy} gbLx?sf] ljsf;af6 kfpg] ax'p2]ZoLo / cGo kmfObfx?af6 ;d]t al~rt /xg' k/]sf] 5 . ckf/ hnljB't >f]tsf] e08f/ ePtf klg s]jn $)Ü g]kfnL hgtfsf] dfq ljh'nLjQLdf kx'Fr k'u]sf] 5 . g]kfndf xfn;Dd lgld{t k|foM ;Dk"0f{ hnljB't s]Gb|x? /g ckm l/e/ k|sf/sf -Run-of-River type_ sf 5g\ / ltgLx?af6 x'g] ljB't pTkfbg jiff{ofddf b]zleqsf] dfueGbf j9L x'g] / ;'Vvfofddf 36L x'g] ub{5 .  g]kfnsf] ljB't pTkfbgdf hnljB'tsf] of]ubfg a9L ePtf klg ;Dk"0f{ pmhf{ pkof]usf] ;Gbe{df x]bf{ ljB't pmhf{sf] pkof]u guGo x'g cfpF5, lsgls s]jn !Ü pmhf{sf] cfjZostf k"lt{ ljB'taf6 ePsf] 5 . pmhf{ vktsf] 7"nf] lx:;fdf bfp/fsf] ^*Ü, kmf]x/d}nfsf]  !%Ü, ufO{e}+;Lsf] uf]a/sf] *Ü / cfofltt h}ljs vlgh t]n -fossil fuel_ sf] *Ü of]ubfg 5 . o; oyfy{nfO{ lrq g+ ! df b]vfO{Psf] 5 .

csf]{ lttf] ;To s] xf] eg], g]kfnsf] hg;+VofdWo] $)Ü sf] dfq ljB'tdf kx'Fr k'u]sf] xfnsf] cj:yfdf hnljB't ljsf;sf] k|r'/ ;Defjgf ePsf] b]z g]kfnn] hnljB'tsf] ljsf; u/L pmhf{sf] nflu ljB'tdf lge{/tf a9fpg' kb{5 . o;af6 h+un ljgf;, e"If]o / u+uf d}bfgsf] tNnf] e]udf jf9Lsf] k|sf]k /f]syfd ug{ of]ubfg k'U5 . bfp/fsf] cefjn] klg ls;fgx?nfO{ s[lifsf] nflu clt cfjZos ufO{e}+;Lsf] uf]a/ afNg jfWo agfPsf] 5 . of] dfq xf]Og, hnljB'tsf] ljsf;af6 e/kbf]{ phf{ k|fKt u/L ;x;|flAb ljsf;sf] nIfx? h:t} jftfj/0fsf] /Iff, ;fIf/tf j[l4, s]6fs]6L / dlxnfsf] :jf:Yodf ;'wf/ xfl;n ug{ d2t ug]{5 . a9\bf] jftfj/0f x|f;n] klg ljB'tdf lge{/tf j9fpg' cfjZos dxz'; u/fPsf] 5 .

g]kfndf ljB'tsf] vkt j[l4 &–(Ü k|ltjif{sf b/n] e}/x]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf sl/a $)Ü hgtfsf] kx'Fr lu|8 cyjf lu|8/lxt k|0ffnLdfkm{t ljB'tdf k'u]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] bzf}+ k~rjifL{o of]hgf -@))@–@))&_ n] b]zleq ljB'tLs/0f j9fpg] / l5d]sL b]zx?df cfk;L kmfObfnfO{ x]/L ljB't cfoft lgof{t ug]{ nIf /fv]sf] lyof] . To;}u/L gofF hnljB't gLlt @))! n] klg lghL If]qsf] nufgL hnljB't ljsf;df tfgL b]zleq ljB'tLs/0f km}nfP/ lgof{t ug]{ nIf /fv]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] hnljB't k|0ffnLdf /g ckm l/e/ -_ cfof]hgfx?sf] k|e"Tj /x]sf] 5 . o; k|0ffnLdf s]jn Psdfq hnf;oo'Qm -_ cfof]hgf kb{5 . lxpFbdf ljB'tsf] sdL x'G5 eg] jiff{ofddf j9L x'G5 . ljB't vktdf 3/]n' pkof]usf] k|e"Tj cTolws /]x]sf] x'Fbf ef/tTj -_ ljNs'n} Go"g 5 . of] c;Gt'ngn] k|i6?kdf hnf;oo'Qm -_ cfof]hgfx?sf] cfjZostf b]vfPsf] 5 / Pscfk;sf] kmfObfsf] lglDt hn;|f]tsf] /fd|f] pkof]u ug{ b'O{ l5d]sL b]zx?;Fu ;xof]u / ;xsfo{sf] klg cfjZostf 5 .

Psflt/ hnljB'tsf] ljsf; /fi6«sf] cfjZostfcg';f/ ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g eg]  csf]{lt/ g]kfndf k|0ffnLut ljB't gf]S;fgL -Losses_ @%Ü ;Dd k'u]sf] 5 . o;df k|fljlws / ck|fljlws -ljB't rf]/L_ gf]S;fgL -Losses_ ;d]t ;dfj]z 5g\ . To;}n] ljB't r'xfj6sf] Ps 7"nf] sf/0f /x]sf] /fi6«sf] ljB't k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ Nofpg Wofg lbP 7"n} pknlAw x'g] k|i6 5 .

hnljB't / k|;f/0f ef]N6]h

hnljB't ljsf;df k|;f/0f ef]N6]hsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf x'G5 / of] g} hnljB't ljsf;sf] Ps dxTjk"0f{ ultzLn tTj -Dynamic Factor_ klg xf] . hnljB't s]Gb|x? b'u{d 7fpFdf agfOG5 eg] ef/ s]Gb|x? 6f9f zx/L Onfsfdf x'G5g\ . To;}n] pTkfbg s]Gb|b]lv ef/ s]Gb|;Ddsf] k|;f/0f gf]S;fgL -Losses_ sd u/fpgsf lgldQ pRr k|;f/0f ef]N6]hsf] pkof]u ul/G5 . pRr k|;f/0f ef]N6]hsf] k|ljlw ljsf; / pkof]un] nfdf] b'/Ldf ljB't k|;f/0f ug{ ;Dej ePsf] 5 . ca b'/b/fhsf] 7fpFdf klg hnljB't s]Gb| agfO{ ef/ s]Gb|;Dd pRr k|;f/0f ef]N6]h k|ljlwsf] pkof]u u/]/ n}hfg cfly{s?kn] ;Dej 5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu $)) lsnf]ef]N6sf] k|;f/0f nfOgsf] pkof]u u/L &)) b]lv *)) lsnf]ld6/sf] b'/L k/;Ddsf] ef/ s]Gb|x?df ;:tf]df ljh'nL k'¥ofpg ;lsG5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df xfn xfdL;Fu @@) lsnf]ef]N6;Ddsf] ljB't k|;f/0f nfOg ag]sf 5g\ . ;+nUg lrq g+= @ df xfn xfd|f] pkof]udf /x]sf ;Dk"0f{ ljB't k|;f/0f nfOgx?, ljt/0f s]Gb| / pks]Gb|x? b]vfOPsf 5g\ .

hnljB't ljsf;sf] ;Defjgf

g]kfnsf tLg 7"nf gbLsf vf]+rx? -_ h:t} M sf]zL, u08sL / s0ff{nL blIf0fsf s]xL gbLx? / l;dfgfsf b'O{ gbLx? d]rL / dxfsfnL ;d]tdf u/]/ sl/j ^))) 7"nf / ;fgf gbLx? 5g\ . vf]+rsf] -Basin_ lx;fan] g]kfnsf] hnljB't pTkfbgsf] ;+efjgf tn tflnsf g+= ! df n]lvPcg';f/ 5g\ .  w]/} cfof]hgfx? ljsf; ug{sf nflu klxrfg ePsf 5g\ . ljsf; ug{sf nflu klxrfg ul/Psf s]xL pko'Qm cfof]hgfx? tn tflnsf g+= @ df ;dfj]z ul/Pcg';f/ 5g\ .

ljB't pTkfbg / k|;f/0fsf] jt{dfg oyfy{tf

g]kfnsf] -_ df ^)) d]ufjf6 hl8t Ifdtf -Installed capacity_ 5 . of] df hnljB'tsf] of]ubfg (%Ü 5 eg] afFsL %Ü tfkLo ljB't s]Gb|x?af6 -_ k"/f ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfndf hnljB'tsf] ljsf; %)) lsnf]jf6sf] km/lkª hnljB't s]Gb|sf] lgdf{0f ;g\ !(!! df ;'? ePsf] xf] . ;aeGbf kl5Nnf] lgdf{0f ul/Psf] dxTjk"0f{ hnljB't s]Gb| &) d]ufjf6sf] dWod:of{ªbL xf] . 

!(() ;Dd hnljB't ljsf;df ;/sf/L ;+:yf g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0fsf] Psflwsf/ /]x]sf] lyof] . tTkZrft hnljB't ljsf; gLlt !((@ nfu' ePkl5 of] If]q lghL If]qsf nflu klg v'nf eof] . xfn lgs} ;+Vofdf lghL lgdf{tfx?n] lgdf{0f u/]sf cfof]hgfx? 5g\ . xfn ;Dddf df lghL hnljB't pTkfbsx?sf] of]ubfg !$* d]ufjf6 k'u]sf] 5 . k|d'v hnljB't s]Gb|x? / ltgsf] Ifdtf tn tflnsf g+= # df lbOPsf 5g\ . g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0f / lghL pBdLx?af6 xfn lgdf{0fflwg hnljB't cfof]hgfx? tflnsf g+= $ df ;dfj]z 5g\ .

lgisif{

ljB'tsf] vktdf 3/]n' pkef]usf] k|e'Tj /x]sf] x'Fbf ljxfg j]n'sLsf] ljB't dfu pRr / cGo ;dodf Go"g ePsf] x'Fbf yk hnf;oo'Qm cfof]hgfx?sf] lgdf{0f u/L o;sf] ;dfwfg ul/g' kb{5 . phf{sf] vktdf xfn bfp/fsf] of]ubfg ^*Ü / uf]a/sf] of]ubfg *Ü af6 36fO{ hnljB'tsf] of]ubfg xfnsf] !Ü af6 j9fpg gofF hnljB't cfof]hgfx?sf] lgdf{0f tLa| ultdf x'g cfjZos 5 . o;af6 jgh+unsf] ljgf;df sdL cfpg], s[lifsf] nflu pQd dn uf]a/ hf]lug] / u+ufsf] tNnf] e]udf af9Lsf] k|sf]kdf sdL cfpg] ePsfn] jftfj/0f hf]lugfn] ;+o'St /fi6« ;+3sf] ;x;|flAb nIo k|fKt ug{;d]t of]ubfg k'U5 . ljB'tdf hgtfsf] kx'Fr xfnsf] $)Ü af6 j9fpgsf nflu b]zleq ljB'tLs/0f / &–(Ü sf b/n] j[l4 e}/x]sf] cfGtl/s ljB't dfunfO{ cfk"lt{ Joj:yf ldnfpg ;d]t gofF hnljB't cfof]hgfx?sf] lgdf{0f lta| ultdf x'g cfjZos 5 . lxpFbdf ljB'tsf] pRr dfu -Peak Demand_ *!@=%) d]ufjf6 j]n'sL ^ ah]]/ @% ldg]6 hfFbf hgj/L @), @))( df -k'gM/fjnf]sg jif{ @))*÷(_ dfkg ul/Psf] 5 . of] cl3Nnf] jif{sf] pRr dfueGbf !@=%Ü j9L 5 . 3/]n' pkef]usf] jr{Zjn] ubf{ o;f] x'g uPsf] xf] .

lxpFbdf ljB't pTkfbg gbLx?df kfgL ;'Sgfn] 36\g] t/ o;}a]nf pRr dfu x'Fbf dfu / cfk"lt{sf] cGt/ 7"nf] 5 . of] cGt/ ef/taf6 ljB't cfoft u/L k"/f ul/G5, lsgls o;}a]nf ef/tdf ljB'tsf] cfk"lt{ j9L / dfu sd x'G5 . To;}n] ljB'tsf] cfoft / lgof{tsf] Joj:yfkg ug{ l5d]sL b]z;Fu ;xof]u / ;xsfo{ h?/L 5 eg] lskmfotL ljB't cfbfg k|bfgsf nflu b'j} b]zsf] /fli6«o lu|8nfO{ hf]8\g] $)) s]eLsf] 6«fG;ldzg OG6/sg]Szg nfOgx?sf] lta| ultdf lgdf{0f ;DkGg ug'{kb{5 . bzf}+ k~rjifL{o of]hgf -@))@–@))&_ / hnljB't gLlt @))! sf] p2]Zocg'?k ljB'tdf hgtfsf] kx'Fr $)Ü af6 j9fpgsf nflu yk ljB'tLs/0f ug]{ nIf, pRr ljB't dfu cfk"lt{ u/L g]kfndf nf]8;]l8ª 36fO{ /fi6«sf] lta| cf}Bf]lus/0f ug]{ nIf k|flKtsf nflu cfjZostfcg';f/ ljB't cfoft lgof{t ug{ $)) s]eLsf] k"j{–klZrd, pQ/–blIf0f / ;Ldfgf jf/kf/ hf]8\g] 6«fG;ldzg O{G6/sg]Szg nfOgx?sf] lgdf{0f oyfl;3| ;DkGg ul/g' kb{5 . g]kfnsf] k|0ffnLut ljB't gf]S;fgL -Losses_ xfnsf] @%Ü af6 36fpg ljB't k|;f/0f k|0ffnLdf Jofks ;'wf/ ul/g' kb{5 . :jflwgtfsf nflu ljB't cfk"lt{df xfn /x]sf] xfd|f] k/lge{/tf qmlds?kdf 36fO{ n}hfg xfdL;Fu ePsf] ckf/ hnljB't zlQmsf] ;DefjgfnfO{ lta| ultdf ljsf; u/L cfTdlge{/ x'g h?/L 5 .

To;}u/L tfkLo phf{ s]Gb|x? klg cfofltt t]nx?af6 rNg] / ltgLx?sf] pkof]un] xfd|f] k/lge{/tf a9fO{ k/flwgtftkm{ n}hfg] x'Fbf ;fjwfg /xg' kb{5 .

d'Vo ;"rgfsf ;|f]tx? M

!= , g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0f, cu:t @))( -efb| @)^^_
@= hnljB't ljsf; gLlt @)%*
#= bzf}+ of]hgf -@)%(–@)^$_, /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u, g]kfn, @)%( kmfNu'0f 
$= jf6/ kfj/ O{lGhlgol/ª, Pd Pd 808]s/ / s] Pg zdf{, ljsf; klAnl;ª xfp; k|fln, gofFlbNnL, ef/t
%= hn tyf phf{;DaGwL P]g lgod ;+u|x, uf]kfn l;jfsf]6L …lrGtgÚ / /tg e08f/L
^= g]kfndf hnljB't ljsf;, @)#) ;fn;Ddsf] ljB't dfu / ljQsf] cfjZostf Ps cWoog, 8f=gf/fo0f k|;fb e§/fO{ -l8;]Da/ @))%_

-lj=O{= -l;len_ / Pd=P:;L= -jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg_ ug'{ePsf u'?ª O:6 sG;N6 k|flnsf k|aGw ;~rfns x'g'x'G5_ 

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