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vf]h–l/kf]6{
 
/fhgLltdf cNdlnPsf] ljsf;

– bLk]Gb| /f]sfof

g]kfn k[YjLsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] dxf4Lk Pl;ofsf] dWo efudf cjl:yt 5 . g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmn !,$&,!*! ju{ lsnf]ld6/ 5 . o;sf] dtna k[YjLsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] )=)# k|ltzt / Pl;of dxfb]zsf] )=# k|ltzt e"–efu xf] . k"j{ d]rL glbb]lv klZrd dxfsfnL kf/Lsf] bf]w/f–rf“bgL;Ddsf] s'n nDafO{ **% ls=ld= km}lnPsf] g]kfndf ;jf]{Rr lzv/ ;u/dfyf x'g'n] g]kfn lxdfnx?sf] /fhwfgL klg xf] . lxdfn !%, kxf8 ^* / t/fO{ !& k|ltzt ePsf] g]kfn tLglt/af6 ef/t / pQ/df rLgn] 3]/]sf] Ps e"kl/j]li7t d'n's xf] . d'n'ssf] /fhgLltn] v]n]sf] e"ldsfsf] cfwf/df b]zsf] ljsf; eof] ls ePg < eg]/ x]g]{ ul/G5 . x/]s /fHo;Qf /fhg}lts bz{gsf] cfwf/df ;~rflnt x'G5g\ .

/fHo;Qf4f/f ;fdflhs–cfly{s–;fF:s[lts hLjg lgwf{/0f x'G5 . ;dfh /fhgLltaf6 s;} u/] klg cnu x'g ;Qm}g . k|f=8f= uf]kfn l;jfsf]6Lsf] ljrf/df æ/fhgLlt ;a}n] a'em]h:tf] nfUg] t/ ;a}nfO{ a'em\g uf¥xf] kg]{ ljifo klg xf] .Æ g]kfnL hgtf afO;] rf}lj;] /fHo, zfx, /f0ff, k|hftGq, k~rfot, ax'bnLo Aoj:yf ef]Ub} nf]stGq / u0ftGq;Dd cfO{ k'u]sf 5g\ . ljsf;sf] gf/f ;'g]sf 5g\ . ljb]zL ;xof]u eO/x]sf] hfgsf/L klg kfPsf 5g\ . t}klg ljsf; ePsf] 5}g . o;sf] vf; /x:o s] xf] < eGg] ljifodf g]kfnL ;dfhn] ulx/f] cWoog ug'{ cfjZos 5 .

/fhg}lts bnx?sf] pbo

/fHo;Qf af/] ;f]r /fVg] x/]s ljrf/ ;d"x g} /fhg}lts bn x'g\ . g]kfnsf] ;Gb{edf k|hfkl/ifb\nfO{ klxnf] /fhg}lts bn dflgG5 . !(#^ h'g !@ tfl/vsf lbg sf7df8f} cf]daxfnl:yt wd{eQm dfy]dfsf] 3/df bz/y rGb, 6+sk|;fb cfrfo{, hLj/fd zdf{, /fdxl/ zdf{ cflb o'jfx?n] k|hfkl/ifb\ u7g u/]sf lyP . pgLx?n] /f0ff zf;gsf] 7fFpdf /fhfsf] gfosTjdf k|hftflGqs Aoj:yfsf] :yfkgf ug{ rfx]sf lyP . t/ pgLx?sf] p2]Zo k'/f gxF'b} /f0ff zf;sx?n] !($) cS6'j/ !* tfl/vsf lbg o;sf ;+:yfks ;b:ox? dWo] bz/y rGb, u+ufnfnnfO{ uf]nL4f/f tyf wd{eQm dfy]dfnfO{ kmfF;L4f/f d[To'b08 lbP . 6+sk|;fb cfrfo{, /fdxl/ zdf{ afx'g ;d'bfosf ePsfn] rf/kf6] d'9]/ hft kltt u/fO{ ;j{:j x/0f u/L cfhLjg s}b ;hfoF tf]s] .  r'8fk|;fb 9'ª\ufgf / u0f]zdfg >]i7nfO{ ;j{:j x/0f u/L cfhLjg s}b ;hfoF  / hLj/fh zdf{nfO{ !* jif{sf] s}b ;hfoF tf]s] . cfo{ ;dfhsf] ;Dks{ /fhf lqe"jgl;t /x]sfn] z'qm/fh zf:qLnfO{ klg xTof u/] .

g]kfn k|hfkl/ifb\nfO{ bdg u/L To;nfO{ cfkm\gf] p2]Zodf k'Ug glbP tfklg To;kl5 v'n]sf g]kfnL /fli6«o sfFu|]; / g]kfnL sfFu|];n] To:t} p2]Zox? cl3 a9fP . sfFu|];n] ;fdGt ju{;Fu ;+emf}tf u/L ;Qfsf] c+lzof/ x'g] /fhgLlt clVtof/ u¥of] . To;kl5 sfFu|];sf] /fhgLlt / g]kfnsf] tTsfnLg ;dflhs cGt/lj/f]wnfO{ glhsaf6 cWoog u/]sf k'iknfnsf] g]t[Tjdf !($( clk|n @@ df g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] u7g eof] . Tof] kf6L{n] /fhg}lts qmflGt4f/f d'n'sdf cfd'n kl/jt{g NofO{ pTkfbgsf ;fwgx?nfO{ ;fdflhsLs/0f ug]{ nIo /fVof] .

ha g]kfndf !(%) sf] kl/jt{g eof], o;n] ubf{ c? /fhgLlts bnx? b]vf kg{ yfn] . To;kl5 k~rfot, ax'bn / ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq;Dd cfOk'Ubf k'/fgf  bnx? Vofp6] x'Fb} uPsf 5g\, gofF bnx? :yflkt x'b} uPsf 5g\ . clxn] hgo'4sf] hudf hgcfGbf]ng ePsf] / To;s} andf ;+ljwfg;efdf k|ltlglwTj ePsf bnx?sf] cfwf/df x]g]{ xf] eg] g]kfndf @( /fhg}lts bn 5g\ .

/fhg}lts cl:y/tf / ljsf;

g]kfnsf /fhg}lts ljZn]ifsx? !(%) otfsf] s'g} klg /fhg}lts Aoj:yfnfO{ l:y/ /fhg}lts Aoj:yf dfGg tof/ 5}gg\ . lsgls k|hftGq cfof] elgof], /f0ffs} g]t[Tjdf ;/sf/ aGof] . To;n] ubf{ l5§} k|hftGqdfly …s'Ú eof] . lgb{nLo k~rfotL Aoj:yf kmfn]sf hgtfn] /fhfs} lgb]{zg cg';f/ !((! sf] gofF ;+ljwfg hf/L eof] . o;}n]   lzz' k|hftGqsf] rrf{ ubf{ub}{ /fhtGq ;Nanfof] . 

kl5Nnf] kl/jt{g dfcf]jfbL hgo'4sf] hudf hgcfGbf]ng ;kmn eof] . t/ lhGbuLe/ /fhtGqsf] jsfnt ug]{ sfFu|]; g]tf lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnfs} g]t[Tjdf ;/sf/ aGof] . x/]s k6s kl/jt{g x'g] t/ g]t[Tj k'/fg} x'g'n] cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] clwsfz+ ;do ;+qmd0f sfn eP/ ljt]sf] kfOG5 . o;n] ubf{ ljsf; af/] hfgsf/x? eG5g\, …o;}n] g]kfndf x'g'kg]{ ljsf; eO{/x]sf] 5}g .Ú 

!(%) cl3 / kl5 

lnR5jL sfndf ag]sf dlGb/, kf6L, kf}jf, s'nf] clxn];Dd 5g\ . Tolta]nfsf ljsf;] gd'gf clxn] klg k|z+;gLo 5g\ . k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf s]xL k':tfn] g]kfn lj:tf/ cleofg rnfof] . ha /f0ffx?sf] pbo eof], ;'uf}nL ;GwL eof], Tof] cleofg klg /f]lsof] . Tolta]nfsf] ljsf; eg]s} /fHo sAhf / l/tLlytL a;fNg] lyof] . !)$ jif{;Dd hxfFlgof /f0ff zf;sx?n] Aoltmut ?kdf cfln;fg dxnx? lgdf0f{ u/] . Tof] afx]s c? b]lvg] ;+/rgfut ljsf; u/]gg\ .

ljsf; af/] rrf{ ubf{ !(%) sf] kl/jt{g s;/L eof] < eGg] klg Pp6f k|Zg p7\5 . g]kfnL hgtf /f0ff zf;gb]lv jfSs lbSs lyP . zf;ssf nflu g]kfnL hgtf lyP, t/ hgtfsf kIfdf /f0ff zf;sx? lyPgg\ . To;}n] sfFu|];n] ;z:q cfGbf]ngsf] z'?jft u¥of], o'jfx?sf] ;xeflutf h'6\b} uof] t/ lbNnLsf] O;f/fdf ;z:q cfGbf]ng /f]lsof] . g]kfnsf sDo'lgi6 / /fi6«jfbLx?sf] ljrf/df  of] wf]sf, u2f/L / /fi6«3ft xf] .

sfFu|]; g]tf ljkL sf]O/fnf :jodn] eg] cfkm\gf] cfTdj[tfGtdf n]v]sf 5g\– Tof] c?n] eg]h:tf] ;Demf}tf slxNo} klg ul/Pg . /f0ff / g]x?sf] ljZjf; k|fKt s]xL Aoltmsf aLrdf dWodfuL{o h'g gLlt to ul/Psf] lyof], To; gLltcg';f/ >L % lqe'jg / g]kfnL sfFu|];nfO{ bf]xf]/f]–t]xf]/f] lgb]{zg lbOPcg';f/ d'ltm ;]gfn] xltof/ lj;fP . o; ;Dk"0f{ k|lqmofdf /fhf, /f0ff / sfFu|];nfO{ Pp6} 6]j'nsf] jftf{df g/flvPsf] dfq xf]Og, To; l;uf] cjlwdf /fhfnfO{ s;}sf] ;Dks{df cfpg lbOPg . >L % lqe"jgnfO{ g]x?n] zfxL clyTod} 8'jfP/ /fv] . …dWodfu{Ú eg]sf] To:tf] gLlt lyof], h;cg';f/ zfx, /f0ff / sfFu|];nfO{ ;dfg'kflts lx;fan] zltmsf] c+l;of/ t'NofOof] . To;sf] dfGotf ef/tsf] lg0f{os lgoGq0faf6 g} g]kfnsf] /fh–g]t[Tj kl/rflnt x'g' kb{5 eGg] b[li6sf]0fsf cfwf/df :yflkt lyof] .Ú

g]kfn slxNo} klg, s;}sf] klg pklgj]zdf rn]sf] lyPg . t/ sfFu|];, /fhf / /f0ffn] zltm ;Gt'ng sfod ubf{ ;'uf}nL ;GwLaf6 cw{–cf}klgj]l;s cj:yfdf k'¥ofOPsf]  g]kfnnfO{ Jojxfl/s ?k lbg] sfd eof] . ljkL sf]O/fnfs} egfO{nfO{ cfwf/ dfGbf klg of] s'/f k'li6 x'G5 .  ;z:q cfGbf]ngdf klZrdsf] df]rf{df v6]sf s]=cfO{= l;+x :jodn] …lbNnL ;Demf}tf wf]sf xf]Ú eGb}  ljb|f]x ug'{ klg csf]{ dxTjk"0f{ k|df0f xf] .

ljsf;sf] nflu of]hgf

;Qf /fhgLltn] ljsf;df k|ToIf k|efj kfb{5 . To;kl5 dfq g]kfnn] afFsL ljZjl;t ;Dks{ /fVof] . ljb];Lx? g]kfnnfO{ ;flª\u|nf e"ld 7fGb} cf]Ol/g yfn] . @# hgj/L !(%! Dff cd]l/sfn] g]kfnnfO{ k|fljlws ;xof]u lbg] cf}krfl/s ;xdlt u¥of] . ToxL lbgaf6 g]kfnn] ljlwjt ?kdf j}b]l;s ;xof]u yfKg] cleofg ;'? u¥of] . cd]l/sf cfPnut} ef/tn] g]kfnnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ qmd ;'? u¥of] eg] To;}u/L rLg klg cfof] .

cy{zf:qL k|f= 8f= s]zj v8\sfsf] ljrf/df …ljb];Lx?n] g]kfnsf] ljsf;sf] nflu ;xof]u ug{ yfn] . o;sf] cfzo cfkm\g} vfnsf] ePklg To;nfO{ Aojl:yt ug{  g]kfnn] ljsf; lgdf0f{sf nflu !(%^ af6 k~rjlif{o of]hgfsf] ;'?jft u¥of] .Ú! of]hgf cfof]usf] klxnf] k|ltj]bgdf …klxnf] of]hgf s'n ## s/f]8sf] ePsf], ptm of]hgfdf ef/tn] #)=#), rLgn] !*=!( / cd]l/sfn] &=%* k|lt;t ;xfotf lbPsf]Ú pNn]v 5 . o;n] ljsf; ljb];L ;xof]uaf6 x'G5 jf ljb];L ;xof]u ljgf ;+ej 5}g eGg] k|efj g]kfndf z'?d} k/]sf] b]lvG5 .

o; cjlwdf sfFu|]; Ot/ zltmsf] pk]Iffn] gs/fTds k|ltlqmof hGdfof] . g]kfn k|hf kl/ifb, k|r08 uf]vf{, g]kfn k|hftGq ;+3, cfo{ ;dfhL cfGbf]ng, gful/s clwsf/ ;ldlt, sf7df8f}+sf] z}lIfs hfu/0f / ;Tofu|x cfGbf]ngsf dxTjk"0f{ ;xsdL{x?nfO{ sfFu|];n] u/]sf] pk]Iffn] g]kfndf …/fi6«jfbÚ sf] gf/f rNg yfNof] .  !$ jif{sf ljBfyL{ lrlgofF sfhLsf] xTof, a9\bf] ef/tLo x:tIf]k h:tf ;jfnn] ;Qf /fhgLltdf a]lylt b]vf k¥of] . /fhfn] bnx?dfly k'gM v]Ng yfn] . t/ g]kfnL sfFu|];, g]kfnL /fli6«o sfFu|]; / k|hfkl/ifb aLrsf] df]rf{n] b]zAofkL ;Tofu|x cfGbf]ng ePkl5 !((% km]a|'c/L !* tfl/vdf r'gfj eof] .

r'gfjdf ax'dt NofPsf] sfFu|];n] ljkL sf]O/fnfnfO{ ;+;bLo bnsf] g]tf agfPsf] lyof] . h;cg';f/ sf]O/fnfs} g]t[Tjdf !( ;b:oLo dGqLd08n u7g eof] . t/ /fhfnfO{ dg k/]sf] lyPg . To;}n] sfFu|];sf] tk{maf6 pk–k|wfgdGqL agfOPsf ;'j0f{ ;dz]/nfO{ Ps jif{kl5 ptm kbdf Nofpg] leqL ;xdltcg';f/ ljkL sf]O/fnfnfO{ k|wfgdGqL agfOPsf] lyof] . …/fi6«3ftL sf];L ;Demf}tf u/L ;s]sf] sfFu|]; ;/sf/n] !(%( l8;]Dj/ ! df u08s ;Demf}tf u¥of] . of] ;Demf}tfsf lj?4 p7]sf] cfjfhnfO{ ljifofGt/ ug{ ;/sf/n] !(^) clk|ndf ;u/dfyf ljjfb / ToxL jif{sf] h'g @* df d':tfª ljjfb aflx/ Nofof] . h;n] ubf{ klxnf] of]hgfcg';f/ ljsf; xf]Og, ;Qf ljjfbdf ;do ljTof] .

k~rfotsfn

/fhf dx]Gb|n] …s'Ú u/]kl5 k~rfotL Aoj:yf ;du|df @( jif{ # dlxgf l6Sof] . To;df $! k6s dGqLkl/ifb\ u7g / lj36g eof] . bf];|f] k~rjifL{o of]hgfb]lv ;ftf} k~rjifL{o of]hgf;Dd k~rfotL thljhdf rNof] . o;} cjlwsf] z'?jftaf6} ljb];L cg'bfgsf ;fy} C0f lng] rng klg a:of] . Tolta]nfsf k|ltalGwt /fhgLlts kf6L{sf g]tfx? k|foM eGg] ub{Yof], …oxfF ljsf;sf gf/f nfU5, t/ lgb{lno k~rfotL Aoj:yf jlnof] kfg{ ljb];L C0f g]kfnL hgtfsf] yfKnf]df xflnb}5 .Ú 

a9\bf] hg;+Vofsf] cfjZostf k'/f ug{ s[lif tyf cf}wf]lus If]qsf] pTkfbg a[l4 ug]{, d'No l:y/tf sfod u/L ljsf;sf] jftfj/0f l;h{gf ug]{, >dd"ns k|ljlw k|of]u u/L /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x? a9fpg] / Gofof]lrt ;fdflhs Aoj:yf sfod ug]{ nIo bf];|f] of]hgfdf /flvPsf] lyof] . s'n ^) s/f]8 vr{ x'g] cg'dfg /x]sf] of]hgfdf j}b]l;s ;xfotf *) k|ltzt lyof] . o:t} o:t} nIo / p2]Zo /fv]/ t];|f], rf}yf], kfFrf}, 5}6f} / ;ftf} of]hgfsf] s'n vr{df qmd;M %^=!, %*, $*=#, ^! / &)=^ k|ltzt ;xfotf j}b]l;s ;xfotf lyof] . oxL ;xfotf dWo] 5}6f} of]hgfdf @(=* k|ltzt /  ;ftf}+  of]hgfdf #$=& k|ltzt C0f lnOPsf] lyof] . o; cjlwdf g]kfndf ljb];Lx?n] cfkm\gf] ahf/ ;'b[9 ug{ / j}rfl/s ?kdf k|efj kfg{ sf]l;; ul//x]sf lyP . cfkm\gf] :jljj]sn] klg rNg vf]Hg] /fhf dx]Gb|n] !(^@ clk|n !# tfl/vsf lbg u}8fsf]6df k"j{–klZrd /fhdfu{sf] l;nfGof; ub}{ eg], …of] k"j{–klZrd /fhdfu{n] b]zsf] lglDt s] slt kmfObf xf]nf Tof] cfhsf] g]kfnLsf] nflu dfq xf]Og, efjL g]kfnL ;GttLsf nflu klg kfpg] nfen] l;4 ug]{5 .Ú

ax'bnLo sfn

!($( km]a|'c/Ldf k|hftGq lbj;s} lbg sfu|];sf] /fli6«o ;Dd]ngn] k~rfotL Aoj:yfsf] cGTo / ;+j}wflgs /fhtGqsf] dfu u/L hgcfGbf]ngsf] 3f]if0ff u¥of] .  To;sf] !! lbgkl5 ef/tn] PsfPs  @ j6f afx]s c? @! j6f gfsfx? aGb u/fof] .  b}lgs lbg pkef]u ug{ rflxg] ;fdfgsf] k}7f/Ldf /f]s nufof] . %) lbgsf] ;+3if{kl5 k~rfotL Joj:yf 9Nof] . ;+;bLo Aoj:yfsf] k'g{:yfkgf eof] .  s[i0fk|;fb e§/fO{sf] g]t[Tjdf !! ;b:oLo cGtl/d dGqLd08n aGof] . g]kfndf ax'bnLo Aoj:yf cfPkl5 nf]ssNof0fsf/L /fHosf] :yfkgftkm{ hf]8 lbg yflnof] . …;Dk"0f{ ;d:ofx?sf] cr's ;dfwfg k|hftGq dfq xf]Ú eGg yflnof] . To;} cjlwdf ag]sf] cf7f} k~rjifL{o of]hgfn] lbuf] cfly{s j[l4b/ xfl;n ug]{, ul/aL 36fpg] tyf If]qLo c;Gt'ng sd ug]{ p2]Zo /fVof] . To; of]hgfsf] s'n ljsf; vr{ !!#$&=( s/f]8df $*=! k|ltzt C0f;d]t u/L ^%=% k|ltzt a}b]l;s ;|f]taf6 h'6fOof] .

o:t} gjf} of]hgf …ul/aL lgjf/0fÚ Ps dfq d'n p2]Zo /fv]/ aGof] . s'n !*(%* s/f]8 ljsf; vr{df %*=* k|ltzt a}b]l;s ;xof]u, h;df $!=^ k|ltzt C0f lnOof] . Pj+l/tn] bzf} of]hgfn] Psflt/ b]zsf] ljBdfg ul/aLsf] cj:yfjf6 pGd'lQm ;lxt Ps ;+:s[t, cfw'lgs Pj+ k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtfo'tm hg;dfh l;h{gf ug]{ bL3{sfnLg p2]Zo af]Sof], csf{lt/ ;/sf/, :yfgLo lgsfo, u}/;/sf/L If]q, lghL If]q, / gful/s ;dfhsf] ;+o'tm ;xeflutfdf ;|f]t ;fwgx?sf] ;d'lrt kl/rfng ub}{ cfly{s cj;/ Pj+ /f]huf/Lsf If]qx? lj:tf/ ug]{ / ;zltms/0f, dfgjLo ljsf;, ;'/Iff tyf nlIft sfo{qmd dfkm{t dlxnf, blnt, b'u{d If]qsf pknAwLx?df kxF'r a[l4 ub}{ cfly{s, dfgjLo Pj+ ;fdflhs kl/;'rsx?sf] ;'wf/ u/L ul/aL 36fpg] cNksfnLg p2]Zo /fVof] . s'n ^$)=& ca{df j}b]l;s ;xfotf %&=% /x]sf] lyof], h;df #$=% k|ltzt C0f lnOof] .

o; cjlwdf k~rfotdf ePsf] hlt klg ljsf; x'g ;s]g eGg]x? klg 5g\ . 8f= b]j]Gb|/fh kf08]sf cg';f/, …ljsf; ylkPg, a? k~rfotdf :yflkt /fli6«o pBf]u wGbfx? lghLs/0fsf gfddf sf}8Lsf] df]ndf a]r]/ w/f;foL agfpg] sfd o;} ;dodf eof] . ljsf;sf nflu ljb];L ;xof]udf lge{/ x'g'n] k/lge{/tf lgDTofof] . To;n] ubf{ bftfx?sf] h'g;'s} zt{ dfGg tof/ zf;sx?n] ToxL ;xof]udf ljlylt rnfpg yfn] . oxLg]/af6 e|i6frf/n] ;+:yfut ?k lnof] .Ú

cGttM pgLx?sf] oxL sdhf]/Ldfly 6]s]/ 1fg]Gb| zfxn] ;lqmo /fhsfh rnfpg] k|of; klg u/] . t/ hgo'4sf] hudf ePsf] hgcfGbf]ngn] nf]stflGqs u0ftGq cfof] . ljsf; af/] hfgsf/x? eG5g, æo; cjlwdf sfuhdf b]vfpg] ljsf; k|z:t eof] t/ vf; /fli6«o ljsf; rfFlx ePg .Æ

nf]stflGqs u0ftGq sfn

b]zdf ljBdfg a]/f]huf/L, ul/aL / c;dfgtfn] g} ;fdflhs åGå lgDTofPsf] lyof], To;nfO{ g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] hgo'4dfkm{t ;Qfdf cfd"n kl/jt{g NofP/ xn ug]{ atfO/x]sf] lyof] . t/ zltm ;Gt'ngsf] ljlzi6 df]8df cfP/  lbuf] zflGt :yfkgfdf ;3fp k'¥ofpb} cfd hgtfsf] hLjg kl/jt{gsf] k|ToIf cg'e"lt lbnfpg cGtl/d of]hgf aGof] . To;sf nflu /fxt, k'gM lgdf0f{ / k'gM PsLs/0fdf ljz]if hf]8 lbg], /f]huf/d'ns, ul/af]Gd'v / km/flsnf] cfly{s j[l4 ug]{, ;'zf;g k|j4{g tyf ;]jf k|jfxdf k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg], ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf;df nufgL j[l4 ug]{, ;fdflhs ljsf;nfO{ hf]8 lbg], ;dfj]zL ljsf; / nlIft sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{ sfo{qmdx? to eP . /fli6«o nIocg';f/ g]kfnsf] ljsf; slt eof] <  ;a}n] cg'ej ug{ ;S5g\ . sfuhdf gofF gofF ;f]rkqx? ag]sf b]lvG5g\ . ;a} /fhg}lts bnsf] Wofg ;Qfdf s]lGb|t 5 . :yfgLo lgsfo nfdf] ;dob]lv gx'Fbf ljsf;sf x/]s of]hgfx? yGs]sf 5g\ eGg t ldNb}g t/ :yfgLo bnx? …sfn] sfn] ldn]/ vfpm efn]Ú ub}{5g\ .

ljsf; slt ePsf] 5 <

g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df g]kfn s[lif k|wfg b]z x'g'n] xfn;Dd s[lif If]qdf to ul/Psf] of]hgfdf ;Gtf]ifhgs ljsf; x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . vfBfGg ;'/Iff emg\ r'gf}tLk"0f{ aGb} uPsf] 5 . dg;'gdf clgZrttf, hnjfo' kl/jt{g, l;FrfOsf] cefj, kz'k+IfLdf /f]usf] k|sf]k b]vf kg'{n] ptm l:ylt lglDtPsf] b]lvb}5 . 

;/sf/n] !(^!, !(&), !(*), !(**, / @)!! df cf}Bf]lus gLlt ;dofg's'n agfP/ NofPsf] b]lvG5 . !(&%,)&^ df 3/]n' tyf ;fgf u/L &) j6f pBf]ux? btf{ eO{ )=(^ s/f]8sf] nufgL ePsf] lyof] . !(() df (#@ j6f ;fgf tyf 3/]n' pBf]un] *@=*^ s/f]8sf] nufgL ePsf] b]lvG5 .  cf7f}+ of]hgf;Dd cfOk'Ubf sDkgL /lhi6f/sf] sfof{nodf %@)% k|f=ln= / ^!@ klAns lnld6]8 sDkgLx? btf{ eP . ;+o'tm jf ljb];L nufgLaf6 sl/a @$& j6f kl/of]hgf k|a4{g eO{ s'n (&#=@ s/f]8 j}b]l;s nufgL ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . Pj+l/tn] @)!) df b'u{d / l;dfGts[t If]qx?df ;~rflnt n3' pBd ljsf; sfo{qmdn] $% xhf/eGbf a9L n3' pBdL tof/ kf/]sf] atfOG5 . t/ zflGt ;'/Iff / cfoftsf] t'ngfdf guGo lgof{tn] g]kfnsf pBf]uwGbfx?sf] cj:yf emNsfpFb5 . 

o:t} pmhf{ If]qdf bzf+} of]hgfsf] cGt;Dddf ljB't hl8t Ifdtf ^$* d]ufjf6 dfq 5 . b]zdf $*=% k|ltzt hgtfn] ljB't pkof]u u/]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . of] eg]sf] @!)) uflj;df cf+l;s ?kdf ePklg ljB't k'u]sf] 5 . oftfoft If]qdf !(%) eGbf cl3 g]kfndf ;8s guGo ?kdf lyof] . !(^@ ;Dd cfOk'Ubf !!(* lsld, !(() ;Dd cfO k'Ubf &##) lsld / @)!) ;Dddf !($$& lsld ;8s lgdf0f{ ePsf] 5 . olt ubf{ klg &! lhNnf ;b/d'sfd;Dd dfq ;8sn] 5f]Psf] 5 .  g]kfndf cTolws k|ult ePsf] If]q ;~rf/ xf] . bzf} of]hgfsf] cGt;Dddf b'O{ bh{g d'n'sl;t cGt/f{li6«o b|'t 8fFs ;]jf / cGt/f{li6«o wgfb]z ;]jfsf] If]qdf pNn]Vo lj:tf/ eof] . cf7f+} of]hgf;Dd !)) Aoltm a/fa/ ! 6]lnkmf]g nfOg pknAw u/fOPsf] lyof] . clxn] cfP/ xft xftdf df]jfO{n / 3/ 3/df OG6/g]6sf] gf/f sfof{Gjog eO{ /x]sf] 5 . o:t} /]l8of], 6]lnlehg, rnlrq / kqklqsfsf] pNn]Vo j[l4 ePsf] 5 .

Aofkf/ Aofj;fodf pNn]Vo k|ult x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g . ko{6g If]qdf eg] ;fdfGot k|ult eO{/x]sf] 5 . o;n] s]xL km/flsnf] If]q vf]Hb} cl3 a9\b}5 . lzIff, :jf:Yo / vfg]kfgL h:tf ;fdflhs ;]jfx?df ;+/rgfut ;+Vofdf dfq k|ult ePsf] b]lvG5 .

lgisif{ M

x/]s b]zsf] ljsf; To; b]zsf] /fhgLltn] lgwf{/0f ub{5 . g]kfnsf] e"uf]n, hflt, wd{ / ;Dk|bfosf lx;fan] hlt ljljwtf 5, ToxL cg'kftdf zf;g ;Qfsf] afu8f]/ ;Dxfn]sfx?n] ;sf/fTds ;f]r lgdf0f{ ug{ g;Sbf x'g'kg]{ ljsf; klg ePsf 5}gg\ . hn;|f]tsf hfgsf/ bLks 1jfnLsf zAbdf …xfdL sxfF w]/} axfb'/ 5g\, h8La'6L, hn k|fs[lts ;Dkbf 5g\ . t/ xfd|f h8La'6Ln] ljb];L sDkgL wgL aG5g\ . xfd|f axfb'/n] c?sf] n8fO{ lhT5g\ . xfd|f] hn;|f]tn] kf/Lk§Lsf] v]t df}nfpF5 . d'Unfgsf] sf/vfgf km:6fpF5g\ . clg ljsf;] dGq hlt;'s} hk] klg clt sd ljsl;t /fi6« x'g] …bf}8Ú df eg] xfd|f] b]z ;w} cufl8 /xFb} cfPsf] 5 .Ú

o;/L x]bf{ !(%) sf] bzs k"FhL / k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f, ;g\ !(^) sf] bzsdf If]qLo ljsf;, ;g\ !(&) sf] bzsdf nlIft ;d'x ljsf;, ;g\ !(*) sf] bzsdf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf, ;g\ !(() sf] bzsdf dfgj ljsf;df hf]8 lbOof] eg] ;g\ @))) sf] bzsdf jftfj/0f tyf ;fdflhs Gofodf hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 . oL d'2fdf s]lGb|t ljZj ;fd' ;g\ !(&% df ul7t …g]kfn ;xfotf ;d"xÚ n] clxn] ;x;|fAbL nIo k|fKtLsf nflu g]kfnnfO{ a}b]l;s ;xfotf h'6fpFb} cfPsf] 5 . oBlk ljsf; ePsf] 5}g .

clxn];Dd ljsf;sf] nflu ljb];Lsf] e/ kg]{ / ljb];L ;xof]u vf]Hg] afx]s c? sfd x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . cfkm\gf] ;|f]t ;fwg n'l6Psf] lrGtf 5}g, c?l;t xft yfKg] k|j[lt a9]sf] 5 . jf:tjdf of] dfgl;stfn] g]kfnLnfO{ k/lge{/tf tkm{ ws]n]sf] 5 . of] ljlyltsf] cGTo ug{ ;Sg] /fhgLlt x'g g;Sg' / b]zn] vf]h]sf] b]zetm qmflGtsf/L /fhg]tfsf] cefjn] ljsf; eGg] s'/f c;+ej h:tf] nfUb} cfPsf] 5 .  of] cWofodf qmde+utf Nofpg cfjZos 5 .

km'6 gf]6

!= cy{zf:qL s]zj v8\sf;Fu @)!) clk|ndf  lnPsf]  cGt{jftf{af6 .
@= an/fd yfkf4f/f  ;Dkflbt / af}l4s ;+;f/ ;Dkfbg ;d"x, sf7df8f}n] !((( df  zfvf clws[t ;a} ;]jf, ;d"xsf] kf7\oqmddf cfwfl/t …;fdflhs cWoogÚ k':tssf]  k[i7 !(%df pNn]lvt ts{ .
#= ;u/dfyfnfO{ rLgn] bfjf u/]sf] s'/f ljkLn] ;fj{hlgs u/]klg !(^) clk|n @( tfl/vsf lbg g]kfn e|d0fdf /x]sf lrlgofF k|wfgdGqL rfpPg nfO{n] kqsf/ ;Dd]ng u/L ;f] bfjL rLgn] 5f]8L ;s]sf] atfP . ToxL jif{sf] h'g @* tfl/vsf lbg  d':tfªdf lrlgofF ;}lgsn] rnfPsf] uf]nLaf6 ! g]kfnL ;]gf dfl/P eg] !) hgf g]kfnL gful/s aGbL agfOPsf] 36gfnfO{ ef/tLo k|wfgdGqL hjfx/nfn g]x?n] ef/tLo nf]s;efdf af]Nb} g]kfn / e'6fgdflysf] cfqmd0fnfO{ ef/tn] cfkm"dflysf] cfqmd0f dfGg] atfP . of] 36gfn] 7"n} ?k lng nfUbf rLgn] Ifdfofrgf;lxt Ifltk"lt{ lbof] . 
$  ;Dkfbs jn/fd yfkf,  …;fdflhs cWoogÚ,  jf}l4s ;+;f/ dfl;s, k[i7 @!! .
%= kf08], 8f= b]j]Gb|/fh -!(($_ …g]kfnsf] cy{ /fhgLlt r'gf}lt / ljsNkÚ lszf]/ s'Fj/ .
^ 1jfnL, bLks, …xfdL lsg ul/a <Ú g]kfndf ul/aLsf] ax;, dfl6{g rf}tf/L, @))^ bf]>f] ;+:s/0f, k[i7 ^( .
;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L
– ;'rgf ljefu, g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lIfKt kl/ro, !((*
– l;jfsf]6L, k|f=8f= uf]kfn, cfw'lgs /fhg}lts ljZn]if0f, klxnf] ;+:s/0f, @))&
– sfkm\n], dfofk|;fb, >]i7, cdg, g]kfnsf] ;/sf/ / k|zf;g, sfkm\n] k|sfzg lj/f6gu/, sf7df8f} !((#,($ .
– sf]O/fnf, ljkL,  cfTdj[tfGt .
– of]hgf cfof]u, klxnf]b]lv cGtl/d of]hgf;Ddsf ;a} cª\sx? .
– yfkf, xl/jxfb'/, ljb];L ;xfotfsf lj;+ult, g]Zgn a's ;]G6/, @))$ .
– ldxfnL, o'u]g a|fDx/, km/]g P8 P08 kf]lnl6S; Og g]kfn, lxdfn a's, bf]>f] ;+:s/0f  @))@ .
– n'O{6]n, 8f= rqmkfl0f, …ljsf; cy{zf:q tyf g]kfnsf] cy{tGqÚ k|wfg a's xfp;, sf7df8f} @)!)  .
– ljsf; hg{n, @))(, ;Dkf=kf08], cfTd/fd .  

-n]vs hglbzf /fli6«o b}lgssf sfo{sf/L ;Dkfbs x'g\ – ;Dkfbs_ 


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