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jif{ @@, c+s @#, @)&) c;f]h # ut] laxLaf/

:yflgo ;dfrf/
 
;xdlt u/f}+ cl3 a9f}+’
df]xg j}B …ls/0fÚ

sf7df8f}+÷ g]skf –dfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf df]xg j}B …ls/0fÚn] jt{dfg cj:yfdf ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg vf]Hg'sf] ;f6f] ;d:ofnfO{ aNemfpg] sfddf rf/bnsf g]tfx¿ tNnLg /x]sf] cf/f]k nufpg' ePsf] 5 . cWoIf ls/0fn] ;/sf/af6} lvn/fhhLsf] /fhLgfdf dflu/x]sf] ## bnLo df]rf{n] lvn/fhhLs} g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/df ;xeflutf hgfpg tTk/tf b]vfO;s]kl5 ## bnnfO{ r'gfjlj/f]wLsf] c/ff]k nufpg' jflxoft ePsf] k|ltlqmof lbg' ePsf] 5 . hgwf/0ff;Fu 6]lnkmf]gdf s'/f ub{} g]tf ls/0fn] r'gfjL ;/sf/n] tf]lsPsf] ldltd} r'gfj u/fpF5' eGg' / r'gfjs} lglDt u7g ul/Psf] lgjf{rg cfof]un] lgwf{l/t sfo{qmdx¿ km]/abn ug{ ;ls+b}g eGg' :jfefljs ePsf] eGb} r'gfjdf hfg] bnx¿aLr ;xdlt ePdf ;/sf/ / lgjf{rg cfof]u afws aGg gcfpg] ljrf/ JoQm ug{' ePsf] 5 .

d+l;/ $ s} ldltdf r'gfjdf ;xefuL eP s] km/s knf{ / egL /flvPsf] lh1f;fdf cWoIf j}Bn] x'g;Sg] s'/f ug{'k5{, gx'g] s'/fdf c8fg lng' unt eGb} d+l;/ $ df ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj x'g;Sg] cfwf/ cfk"mn] gb]v]sf] :ki6 kfg{'eof] . hah{:tL r'gfj u/fpg vf]lhPdf To;n] d'7e]8 lgDTofpg] / b]z o'4df hfg] r]tfjgL klg g]tf j}Bn] lbg'eof] .

b]zsf] cfjZostf /fli6«o ;xdlt ePsfn] tf]lsPsf] ldltdf c8fg /fv]/ /fli6«o ;xdltsf] jftfj/0fnfO{ layf]Ng] sfd s;}n] ug{ gx'g] g]tf j}Bsf] ljrf/ /x]sf] 5 . cfk"mx¿ cToGt} nrs eP/ k|:t't ePsf] t/ /fhgLlts ;xdlt nrs aGg g;s]sf]k|lt lrGtf JoQm ub{} j}Bn] /fli6«o ;xdltsf lglDt cf–cfˆgf x7x¿ 5f]8f}+, ;xdlt u/f}+ / cl3 a9f}+ egL hgwf/0ffdfkm{t cfXjfg ug{] klg hgfpg' ePsf] 5 .


ef/tLo ;z:q kmf}h g]kfn k:of] ¤

sf7df8f}+÷ ef/tsf] ;z:q k|x/L kmf}hn] lxhf] a'waf/ g]kfnL ;Ldfdf k|j]z u/]/ g]kfnL gful/s d~h'/k|;fb >]i7sf] 3/df 5fkf df/]sf] 5 . alb{of ;b/d'sfd u'nl/of–* l:yt >]i7sf] 3/df 5fkf dfbf{ ef/tLo k|x/L kmf}hn] g]kfn k|x/LnfO{ hfgsf/L g} glbO{ 5fkf df/]sf] xf] . ef/t pQ/ k|b]zsf] nlvdk'/af6 @ j6f uf8Ldf ef/tLo k|x/Lx¿ k|x/L kf]zfsd} g]kfn k|j]z u/]/ cglws[t 9+un] g]kfnLsf] 3/df 5fkf df/]sf x'g\ . ef/tLo k|x/L kmf}hn] o;/L g]kfn k;]/ g]kfnLsf 3/df 5fkf dfg{] sfd u/]sf]df g]skf –dfcf]jfbLn] cfklQ hgfPsf] 5 .

ef/tLo k|x/Ln] >]i7sf 3/df 5fkf dfbf{ :yfgLojf;Lx¿n] g]kfn k|x/LnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fPsf lyP . g]kfnL k|x/Lsf 8LP;kL /fh]Gb|k|;fb wdnfn] ef/tLo k|x/L k"j{hgsf/Llagf 5fkf dfg{ cfPsf] :jLsf/ u/] klg 5fkf dfg{ gkfPsf] egL ef/tLo k|x/Lsf] arfp u/]sf 5g\ . 5fkf dfl/;s]kl5 g]kfn k|x/Ln] :sl6ª ub{} ef/tLo k|x/LnfO{ ;Ldf kf/ u/fPsf] lyof] . 5fkf dfg{ cfPsf ef/tLo k|x/LnfO{ lgz:q cfPsf lyP egL g]kfn k|x/Lsf 8LP;kL wdnfn] arfp u/]sf 5g\ .

g]skf –dfcf]jfbLsf] cfklQ

ef/tLo k|x/Ln] g]kfnLsf] 3/df 5fkf df/]sf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ g]skf× –dfcf]jfbLn] Ps lj1lKt ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5 . k|jQmf kDkmf e';fnåf/f hf/L ul/Psf] k|]; lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5– …of] 36gf xfd|f] :jfwLgtfdfly ef/tLo zf;s ju{n] u/]sf]

gfªuf] cfqmd0f xf] . xfd|f] kf6L{ o;sf] 3f]/ eT;{gf / lj/f]w ub{5 .Ú hf/L lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5– …oyfzL3| ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbL zf;sn] of] 36gfk|lt g]kfnL hgtfl;t dfkmL dfUg' kb{5 / g]kfnsf] /fli6«o cv08tfdfly cfqmd0f gbf]xf]¥ofpg] k|lta4tf JoSt u/L g]kfn k|j]z ug]{ ;z:q ef/tLo k|x/Ldfly sf/afxL ul/g'kb{5 .Ú

dfcf]jfbLn] 36gfk|lt df}g a:g] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] /j}ofk|lt v]b JoQm ub{} ;/sf/ lj?4 / /fli6«o :jfwLgtfsf] /Ôfsf lglDt cl3 a9\g ;Dk"0f{ b]zeQm kf6L{ / cfd hg;d'bfonfO{ xflb{s cfXjfg;d]t u/]sf] 5 .


ca ef/t 3'Dg] emngfysf] kfnf]

sf7df8f}+÷ ef/tLo ljb]z;lrj ;'hfyf l;+xn] sf+u|]; ;efklt ;'zLn sf]O/fnfnfO{ e]6]nuQ} 8Nn'l:yt vgfn lgjf;df Pdfn] cWoIf emngfy vgfnnfO{ e]6\g k'u]sL lyOg . vgfn;Fu klg ef/tLo ljb]z ;lrj l;+xn] d+l;/ $ d} lgjf{rg u/]/ ;+qmd0fsfn cGTo ug{ ;'emfj lbOg\ . lgjf{rg ;DkGg u/]/ ;+qmd0f cGTo ug{ / hlt;Sbf] l56f] ljsf; k|lqmofdf cl3 a9\g ef/tLo ljb]z ;lrjn] vgfnnfO{ lgb{]zg lbPsf] ;|f]tn] hgfof] .  /fi6«kltn] cfof]hgf ul//x]sf] ;j{bnLo e]nfdf r'gfjsf] tf]lsPsf] ldlt ;fg{;d]t tof/ ePsf sf+u|]; / Pdfn] g]tfx¿ ef/tLo ljb]z ;lrj;dIf r'gfj ;fg{ g;lsg]df k|lta4 eP/ k|:t't ePsf] ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 . ef/tLo ljb]z ;lrj l;+xn] Pdfn] cWoIf vgfnnfO{ ef/tLo k|wfgdGqL dgdf]xg l;+xsf tkm{af6 ef/t e|d0fsf nflu lgDtf] ;d]t lbPsf] ;|f]tn] hgfof] .

l;+xn] bf];|f] lbg /fi6«klt 8f=/fdj/0f ofbj, dlGqkl/ifb\sf cWoIf lvn/fh /]UdL, k/f/fi6« tyf u[xdGqL dfwjk|;fb l3ld/], Pdfcf]jfbL cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfnnufotsf g]tfx¿nfO{ klg To;}u/L e]6]/ d+l;/ $ d} r'gfj ;DkGg ug{ lgb{]zg u/]kl5 g]kfnsf] /fhgLltn] kmn{Ss} sf]N6] km]/]sf] 5 . ca bnx¿ ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjsf gfddf /Qmkftk"0f{ le8GtnfO{ cfdGq0f ug{] cj:yfdf k'u]sf 5g\ . lg/Lx /fi6«klt ;d]t …ls+st{Jod\ljd"9Ú sf] l:yltdf k'u]sf 5g\ .


lrqaxfb'/nfO{ dfg]{ wDsL

sf7df8f}+÷ /fli6«o hgdf]rf{ g]kfnsf cWoIf lrqaxfb'/ s];Ln] ;+3Lotfsf] ljifodf cfk"mn] ln+b} cfPsf] c8fgsf sf/0f g]kfn /fi6«;Fu} cfˆgf] Hofg klg vt/fdf k/]sf] s'/f tf}lnxjfdf k'u]/ v'nf;f ug{'ePsf] 5 . …u0ftGqnfO{ ;+:yfut u/f}+, /fli6«otfsf] /Iff u/f}+ ;+3Lotfsf] lj/f]w u/f}+Ú eGg] cleofgdf nfUbf cfkm"nfO{ Hofg dfg]{ wDsL cfPsf] s];Ln] hgfpg'ePsf] 5 . /fli6«o hgdf]rf{åf/f slknj:t' lhNnfsf] uf]?l;+u]df cfof]lht ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rg k|rf/ cleofg sfo{qmddf cWoIf s];Ln] ljv08gjfbLx¿af6 Hofg dfg]{ wDsL cfPsf] 5, kf6L{sf] sfo{qmddf cj/f]w ug]{ / layf]Ng] ul/Psf 5g\ . sfo{qmd u/] v'§f efFRg] / dfg]{;Ddsf] wDsL cfk"mnufot cfˆgf] kf6L{sf sfo{stf{nfO{ cfPsf] v'nf;f ug{'ePsf] 5 .

s}of}+ 7fpFx¿df cfˆgf kf6L{sf ;efx¿df cfqmd0f ug]{, s'6lk6 ug]{ / dfOs vf]:g] g;s] dfOssf] tf/ r'F8fNg];d]t ul/Psf] s];Ln] hgfpg'ePsf] 5 . s];Ln] ;+3Lotf jf hftLotfsf] k|Zgdf cfˆgf] kf6L{n] ;Dem}tfxLg lj/f]w ul//x]sf] bfjL ug{'ePsf] 5 . To;}n] k"j{df hfltjfbL ;+u7gx¿n] cfˆgf] kf6L{sf] sfo{qmddf afwf k'¥ofpg] k|oTg u/]sf] s];Ln] cf/f]k nufpg'ePsf] 5 .

;+3Lotfn] hftLo / If]qLo lju|x tyf /fli6«o ljv08gsf] l:ylt pTkGg x'g] vt/f cf}+NofpFb} s];Ln] /fli6«otfsf] /Iffdf nfUg cfdhgtfnfO{ cfXjfg ug{'ePsf] lyof] . g]kfnsf k|d'v /fhgLlts zlQmx¿sf] ;fd|fHojfbL cd]l/sf / ef/tk/:t k|j[lQ Pj+ gful/stf;DaGwL /fi6«3ftL gLltn] ubf{ g]kfnsf] /fli6«otf vt/fdf k/]sf] eGb} /fli6«otf hu]gf{sf] lglDt ;a} g]kfnL Psh'6 x'g'kg{]df s];Ln] hf]8 lbg'eof] . ;+3LotfljxLg nf]stflGqs u0ftGq ;+ljwfg agfpg ;s] dfq} /fi6« alnof] x'g] s];Lsf] ts{ lyof] .

hgdf]rf{n] ;+3Lotf / u0ftGqsf] ;+:yfut ljsf; / /fli6«otf /Iffsf] ;jfndf b]zJofkL ¿kdf /fli6«o k|rf/fTds cleofg yfn]sf] 5 . cleofg a'6jnaf6 ebf} !) ut]b]lv ;'? ePsf] xf] . ef]ln c;f]h $ ut];Dd cleofg hf/L /xg] / To;kl5 bf];|f] r/0fsf] cleofg 3f]if0ff ug{] hgdf]rf{n] hgfPsf] 5 .    


bnx¿df efFhf] xNb}5 ef/t  

sf7df8f}+÷ ef/tLo ljb]z ;lrj ;'hfyf l;+x g]kfnsf] e|d0f u/L g]kfnsf /fhgLlts bnx¿nfO{ le8Gtsf] l:yltdf k'¥ofP/ kmls{PsL l5g\ . /fi6«klt 8f=/fdj/0f ofbjn] g]kfnLsf /fhgLlts bnx¿aLr uf]nd]r ;Dd]ng u/fpg] tof/L ul//x]sf a]nf ef/tLo ljb]z;lrj l;+xn] g]kfnsf /fhgLlts bnsf zLif{ g]tfx¿nfO{ e]6]/ ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rg d+l;/ $ d} ug{ bjfj lbPsL l5g\ . tf]lsPsf] ldlt ;fg]{ jf g;fg{] eGg] ljjfb g]kfnsf bnx¿aLr eO/x]sf] a]nf l5d]sL d'n's ef/tn] tf]lsPs} ;dodf r'gfj ug{ ;'emfj lbPkl5 bnx¿aLrsf] ;xdlt e+u x'g k'u]sf] 5 . b'O{lbg] ;b\efjgf e|d0fsf gfddf ut zlgaf/ sf7df8f}+ cfPsL ef/tLo ljb]z;lrj ;'hfyf l;+xn] ;QfkIfLo u7aGwgsf bnx¿sf] g]tfnfO{ dfq e]6]/ g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf efFhf] xfNg] sfd u/]sL l5g\ .

;|f]tsf cg';f/ ef/tLo ljb]z;lrj sf7df8f}+ plqPnut} lqe'jg cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:ynaf6 ;Lw} sf+u|]; ;efklt ;'zLn sf]O/fnf lgjf; dxf/fhuGh k'u]]sL lyOg\ . sf]O/fnf;Fu sl/a cfwf 3G6f ePsf] e]6df l;+xn] g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts cj:yf / r'gfj tof/Laf/] rf;f] /flvg\ / sf+u|]; ;efklt sf]O/fnfn] cfˆg} b]zsf] /fi6«kltnfO{ la|lkmª u/]em}+ u/] .

sf+u|]; ;efklt / ef/tLo ljb]z;lrjaLrsf] e]6jftf{df ef/tLo /fhb"t /lGht /] / cGo ef/tLo clwsf/Lx¿ klg pkl:yt /x]sf] ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 . d+l;/ $ d} lgjf{rg x'g]df cfkm"x¿ ljZj:t /x]sf] sf]O/fnfn] ef/tLox¿nfO{ hgfPsf lyP .


blntsf] lxtdf bnx¿ Psdt

sf7df8f}+÷ g]skf–dfcf]jfbLsf ;lrj b]j u'?ªn] ljb]zL rnv]nsf sf/0f bnx¿n] lg0f{o ug{ ;s]gg\ / /fli6«o ;xdlt aGg g;s]sf] bfjL ug'{eof] . l5d]sL b]zn] cfkm" cg's"n ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg / ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{ bafa lbO/x] klg bnx¿n] cfˆg} ana'tfn] lgdf{0f ug{ cfF6 ug'{kg]{ w/0ff JoQm ug'{eof] .

uf]nd]r;efdfkm{t b]znfO{ /fhgLlts lgsf; lb+bf /fli6«o :jf3Lgtf alnof] x'g] c8fg bf]xf]¥ofpFb} u'?ªn] eGg'eof], …;j{bnLo a}7sdf xfdLn] /fv]sf rf/a'Fb] k|:tfjdf clwsf+z bn ;xdt eP klg rf/ bnsf zLif{ g]tfx¿n] dfGg' ePg, pxfFx¿ ljb]zL zlQmsf] bafadf kg'{ePsf] cfz+sf k}bf ePsf] 5 .Ú

clxn] uf]nd]r;efaf6} lgsf; lg:sg] ljifodf alnof] dt aGb} uO/x]sfn] /fli6«o ;xdlt lg:sg] ljZjf; u'?ªn] JoQm ug'{eof] . g]kfn :jfwLg eP blnt clwsf/ klg ;'lglZrt x'g] bfaL u?ªn] ug'{eof] .

sfo{qmddf PsLs[t g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o /0f]Gb| a/fOnLn] kL8s hfltx¿sf] cflwsf/ vf]l;g] 8/n] ;+ljwfg;ef lj36g u/fOPsf] cf/f]k nufpg'eof] .

g]kfnL sf+u|];sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o hLjg kl/of/n] blnt clwsf/nfO{ ;'lglZrt ug{ k|ToIf lgjf{rgdf blntx¿aLr g} k|ltikwf{ u/fpg' pko'Qm x'g] ;'emfj /fVg' eof] . /fli6«o ;xdlt lgdf{0f ub}{ ;a} /fhgLlts kf6L{nfO{ ;xefuL ug{ ;lsg] eP d+l;/ $ ut]sf] lgjf{rgnfO{ ;fg{ ;lsg] klg pxfFn] JoQm ug{ eof] .

g]skf -Pdfn]_sf s]GbLo ;b:o tyf g]kfn pTkLl8t hftLo ;dfhsf cWoIf hLt' uf}tdn] klxn] ;+ljwfg;efn] lg0f{o ul/;s]sf ljifox¿nfO{ ;d]6\b} ;femf ;xdlt / ;ªsNksf ;fy 3f]lift ldltd} lgjf{rg x'g'kg]{df hf]8 lbg'eof] .

sfo{qmdsf cWoIf tyf g]kfn /fli6«o blnt d'lQm df]rf{sf cWoIf ltns kl/of/n] sfo{kq k|:t't ub}{ /fli6«o :jfwLgtf, u0ftGq / hghLljsfsf] kIfdf /x]sf] g]skf–dfcf]jfbLnfO{ afOkf; u/]/ d'n'sdf lgsf; c;Ddj /x]sf] 7f]s'jf ug'{ eof] .


Pdfcf]jfbL 3f]if0ffkqdf /fli6«otfaf/] gofF JofVof

sf7df8f}+÷ Pg]skf -dfcf]jfbL_n] cfufdL ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rgsf nflu 3f]if0ffkq tof/ u/]sf] yfxf ePsf] 5 . 3f]if0ffkqdf cfufdL !) jif{leq b]znfO{ ljZjs} gd'gf /fi6« agfpg] of]hgf;lxtsf] vfsf k|:t't ug]{ tof/L ePsf] ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 . d+l;/ $ ut] x'g] r'gfjsf nflu kf6L{sf] Ph]08f tof/ kfg{sf nflu 3f]if0ffkq tof/ ug]{ sfdnfO{ tLj|tf lbOPsf] ;f] kf6L{ lgs6 ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 . kf6L{n] ;~rfng u/]sf] Ps dlxg] cleofg / ljleGg If]qaf6 k|fKt ePsf ;'emfjx¿sf cfwf/df 3f]if0ffkq tof/ ul/g] ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 .

Pdfcf]jfbL kf6L{n] x]6f}+8f dxflwj]zgaf6 kfl/t u/]sf] …klxrfg;lxtsf] ;+3Lotf / ;+3Lotf;lxtsf] ;+ljwfgÚ eGg] gf/fnfO{ d"n cfwf/ agfP/ 3f]if0fkq tof/ ug{] hgfPsf] 5 . 3f]if0ffkq tof/L d:of}bf ;ldltsf ;of]hs 8f=afa'/fd e§/fO{n] !) jif{leq b]znfO{ cfly{s ;d[l4lt/ k'¥ofpg] / a]/f]huf/Lsf] cGTo ug]{ of]hgf 3f]if0ffkqdf ;d]6\g' ePsf] ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 .

ef/tk/:t g]tfsf] cf/f]k v]lk/x]sf 8f=afa'/fd e§/fO{sf] ;+of]hsTjdf d:of}bf eO/x]sf] r'gfjL 3f]if0ffkqdf /fli6«otfsf] d'2fnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVb} ;'uf}nL ;lGwb]lv /fli6«o :jfwLgtfdfly cfFr cfPsfn] b]zsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf / ef}uf]lns cv08tfsf] /Iff ug{sf nflu kf6L{n] g]t[Tj lng'kg{] hf]8 lbOPsf] ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 . 3f]if0ffkqdf /fi6«jfbnfO{ ;fdGtL gSsnL /fi6«jfb / k|ultzLn /fi6«jfb eg]/ b'O{ lsQfdf JofVof ul/Psf] klg ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 . 3f]if0fkqdf /fli6«o cfTd;dk0f{jfbL kIfdf kf6L{ g/x]sf] :ki6 kfb}{ cfufdL ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rgdf ;a} hfthflt, efiffefifL lnË, If]qnfO{ ;d]6]/ ;dfj]zL, ;dfg'kflts pTkLl8t ul/aL / a]/f]huf/af6 d'Qm u/fP/ b]znfO{ :jfwLg agfpg] ljifo ;dfj]z ul/g] klg ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 . 8f=afa'/fd e§/fO{sf] ;+of]shTjdf u7g ul/Psf] 3f]if0ffkq tof/L sfo{bndf s[i0faxfb'/ dx/f, uf]kfn ls/ftL, n]v/fh e§, ljZjeQm b'nfn, ljZjgfy ;fx, wd{bQ b]jsf]6f, 8f=l8NnL/fh vgfn, zzL >]i7 / nf]s]Gb| lji6du/ /x]sf] kf6L{ ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 .


lzIff k'/:sf/af6 e/t ;Ddflgt

sf7df8f}+÷ lzIff If]qdf pTs[i6 of]ubfg k'¥ofPjfkt bfª 3f]/fxL gu/kflnsf–!! lgjf;L e/tdl0f kf08]nfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/ lzIff dGqfnon] …/fli6«o lzIff k'/:sf/ @)&)Ú af6 ;Ddflgt u/]sf] 5 . kf08] bfª 3f]/fxLl:yt zflGt ;'wf pRr dfWoflds ljBfno cleefjs lzIfs ;ldltsf cWoIf /x]sf] ljBfno ;"qn] hgfPsf] 5 .


dfcf]jfbLsf gfddf k|x/L cft+s

ef/tsf] k"jL{efudf ut zlgaf/ ef/tLo ;'/Iff ;]gfn] !$ hgf dfcf]jfbLnfO{ df/]sf] bfjL u/]sf] e'jg]Zj/af6 ^%) lsnf]ld6/ blIf0fklZrd kg]{ kfl8of jg If]qdf le8Gtsf gfddf g/;+xf/ ePsf] 5 . ;'/IffsdL{n] pQm If]qdf 5fglag cf/De u/]sf] / pgLx¿n] dfcf]jfbLsf] lzlj/ km]nf k/]sf] bfaL u/]sf 5g\ .

of] If]q 5QL;u9 /fHo;Fu hf]l8Psf] 5 / k|x/Ln] o; sf/afxLdf lJf:kmf]6s kbfy{, xftxltof/, uf]nfjf?b tyf dfcf]jfbL ;flxTox¿ km]nf kf/]sf] bfjL u/]sf] 5 . of] 36gf ePnuQ} k|wfgdGqL dfgdf]xg l;+xn] dfcf]jfbL d'n'ssf nflu ;a}eGbf uDeL/ cfGtl/s ;'/Iff r'gf}tL ePsf] hgfPsf 5g\ .

dfcf]jfbLn] ul/asf nflu e"ld tyf gf]s/Lsf] dfu ub}{ cw{cf}klgj]lzs tyf cw{;fdGt zf;g ktg u/fO sDo'lgi6 ;dfh :yfkgf ug]{ rfxgf /fv]sf 5g\ . dfcf]jfbL xfn ef/tsf @) /fHodf km}lnPsf] 5 . 5QL;u9, cf]l8;f, laxf/, emf/v08 tyf dxf/fi6«df dfcf]jfbL a9L ;lqmo b]lvPsf 5g\ . pgLx¿n] ToxfF xhf/f}+ lsnf]ld6/ e"efu lgoGq0fdf lnPsf 5g\ .


rLg;+Fu ef/t If]Kof:q xf]8jfhLdf

ef/tn] cfOtaf/ bf];|f] k6s k/df0f' xltof/ ;Ifd If]Kof:qsf] ;kmn k/LIf0f u/]sf] 5 . o;sf] Ifdtf rLgsf] /fhwfgL a]Olh+u / o'/f]ksf] w]/} h;f] e"efu;Dd /x]sf] hgfOPsf] 5 . o; ;kmntfn] ef/tnfO{ k/df0f' xltof/sf] Ifdtf ljsf;df d2t k'Ug] bfjL ul/Psf] 5 .

…k/LIf0f ;kmn ePsf] 5Ú – k|lt/Iff cg';Gwfg tyf ljsf; ;+u7gsf k|jQmf /ljs'df/ u'Ktfn] eg] . …o;n] k"j{lgwf{l/t lg;fgfdf k|xf/ u¥of] . o;af6 cleofgsf] ;a} p2]Zox¿ k"/f ePsf] pgn] eg]sf 5g\ .

ef/tsf] k"jL{ t6Lo /fHo pl8;fsf] Pp6f 6fk'sf] h+unaf6 pQm clUg–% /s]6 k|If]k0f u/]sf] b]vfOPsf] lyof] . ef/tn] cfkm"nfO{ rLgsf] a9\bf] ;}Go an;Fu ;Gt'ngdf /fVg] k|of; ub}{ cfO/x]sf] bfjL u/]sf] 5 / p;sf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] k/df0f' xltof/ zlQm ;DkGg l5d]sLlj?4 ;zQm pEofpg rfx]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . b'O{ b]zaLr ;fdfGotof ;DaGw Gofgf] eP klg ;g\ !(^@ df oL b'O{ l5d]sLaLr lxdfnL If]qdf o'4 eO;s]sf] 5 . To; If]qsf] ljjfbf:kb ;LdfnfO{ lnP/ pgLx¿ aLrsf] tgfjsf] ;|f]t ag]sf] 5 .

clUg–% ef/t cfkm}+n] ljsf; u/]sf] clUgsf] ;a}eGbf cfTofw'lgs ;+:s/0f xf] . o;sf] ljsf;sf] >[+vnf ;g\ !(^) sf] bzsaf6 z'? ePsf] lyof] . o;cl3sf k'/fgf k/LIf0fx¿ ef/tsf] k'/fgf] k|ltåGbL kfls:tfg / klZrd rLg;Dd df/ xfGg] Ifdtf /fVg] bfjL ul/Psf] lyof] .

cf0fljs xltof/ ;DkGg kfls:tfg k/df0f' xltof/df/s c:qx¿ / 5f]6f] b"/Lsf] ;fdl/s k/df0f' xltof/x¿sf] ljsf;df nflu/x]sfn] blIf0f Pl;ofdf xltof/sf] xf]8afhL lrGtfsf] ljifo ag]sf] ;fdl/s cWoogsf nflu cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfn] hgfPsf] lyof] .

kfls:tfg;Fu xf]8afhLdf pTkGg u/fpg ;Sg] k/Dk/fut åGbdf klg k/df0f' xltof/sf] k|of]u ug{ ;Sg] vt/f a9]sf] ljZn]ifsx¿n] r]tfjgL lbPsf 5g\ . clUg–% If]Kof:q o;cl3 ;g\ @))% df klxnf] k6s k/LIf0f ul/Psf] lyof] . k|foM :jb]zd} lgdf{0f ePsf] of] If]Kof:qsf] df/ xfGg] Ifdtf % xhf/ lsnf]ld6/;Ddsf] /x]sf] 5 . /fi6«;+3sf] ;'/Iff kl/ifb\sf :yfoL ;b:ox¿ rLg, k|mfG;, ?; cd]l/sf / a]nfotnufot Oh/fon;Fu  dfq} o; k|sf/sf] nfdf] b"/Lsf] xltof/ /x]sf] ljZjf; ul/G5 .


of] klg /f]rs ;dfrf/ xf]

pQ/sf]l/ofsf g]tf lsd hf]ª pg Ps 5f]/Lsf lktf ePsf] tYo ;fj{hlgs ePsf] 5 . xfn} cd]l/sfsf] k"j{af:s]6an v]nf8L 8]lg; /f]8Dofgn] uflh{og klqsfnfO{ cGtjf{tf{ lbg] qmddf g]tf lsdsf] 5f]/L ePsf] / pgsf] gfd h'O{ /x]sf] hfgsf/L lbPsf x'g\ . pgL ut;ftf af:s]6an s"6gLlts ofqfsf] nflu pQ/sf]l/of uPsf lyP . lsdsf] lghL lhGbuLaf/] lgs} sd hfgsf/L aflx/ cfpg] u/]sf] 5 . /f]8Dofgsf cg';f/ pgn] xfn} g]tf lsdsf] kl/jf/sf ;fy ;do latfPsf lyP . /f]8Dofgn] eg], …lsd Ps /fd|f] lktf x'g\ . lsd / d}n] ;d'b|df pgsf] kl/jf/sf] ;fy cf/fdn] ;do latfof}+ .Ú pgsf] of] cGtjf{tf{n] pQ/sf]l/ofnL g]tfaf/] w]/} hfgsf/L pknAw ePsf] 5 .

pgn] eg], …d}n] pgsL 5f]/L h'O{nfO{ af]s]/ pgsL kTgLsf ;fy s'/fsfgL u/] .Ú lsd / pgsf] kl/jf/ lgs} /fd|f] /x]5 .Ú utjif{ lsdsL kTgL /L ;f]n h'sf] tl:a/ aflx/ cfpFbf pgL ue{jtL h:tf] b]lvPsf] lyof] t/ cflwsfl/s ¿kaf6 o;sf] k'li6 ePsf] lyPg . pQ/sf]l/ofn] ;g\ @)!@ df /L ;f]n h' g]tf lsdsL kTgL ePsf] k'li6 u/]sf] lyof] .


ca ;fN6 6]«l8ªn] dn cfk"lt{ ug{]

sf7df8f}+÷ ;/sf/n] ;fN6 6««]l8ª skf]{/];g lnld6]8nfO{ /f;folgs dn ljt/0fsf]  lhDdf lbOPsf] 5 . *% xhf/ d]l6«s 6g /f;folgs dn cfoft tyf cfk"lt{sf] lhDdf ;fN6 6«]l8ªnfO{ lbOPsf] 5 . cfufdL ;ftf pQm dn g]kfn lelqg] / ljt/0f yfNg] sfo{qmd /x]sf] ;fN6 6«]l8ª ;|f]tn] hgfPsf] 5 .

;fN6 6]«l8ªnfO{ ljZjf; ub}{ dn cfoft / ljt/0f lhDdf lbOPsf] cy{dGqL sf]O/fnfn] hgfP . …of] k/LIff xf], o;df pQL0f{ ePdf yk lhDd]jf/L ;fN6 6«]l8ªn] kfpg] klg dGqL sf]O/fnfn] hgfP . cGo ;+:yfx¿ lj36g ePsf, 3f6fdf uPsf / /fhgLlts lvrftfgLn] p7\g} g;Sg] ePsf] cj:yfdf ;fN6 6«]l8ªn] eg] /fd|f] sfd u/]sf] dGqL sf]O/fnfsf] egfO lyof] .

@)@) ;fndf :yfkgf ePsf] ;fN6 6«]l8ª :yfkgfsf] %) jif{ k'u]sf] 5 . :yfkgfsf] :j0f{ hoGtL dgfpFb} lnld6]8n] g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ ;x'lnot d"Nodf yk k|efjsf/L ;]jf lbg] k|lta4tf JoQm u/]sf] 5 . ut cfy{s jif{df $ ca{ ^@ s/f]8sf] sf/f]af/ u/]sf] ;fN6 6«]l8ª lnld6]8n] !) s/f]8 $# nfv ?lkofF v"b gfkmf ch{g u/]sf] lyof] . g]kfnsf ;a} efudf cfof]l8go'Qm g'g Ps} d"Nodf k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf]df cf;Gg bz}+, ltxf/, 57 / ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rg ;dodf ;'ne / ;xh pkef]Uo ;fdfg cfk"lt{ ug]{ ;fN6 6«]l8ªsf dxfk|aGws pld{nf >]i7n] hgfpg' ePsf] 5 . dxfk|aGws >]i7sf cg';f/ d]rLb]lv dxfsfnL;Dd km}lnPsf] lnld6]8sf] ;]jfnfO{ yk lj:tf/ ug]{ bLuf] of]hgfsf ;fy sd{rf/Lx¿ ;lqmo eP/ nfu]sf 5g\ . lnld6]8 ;~rfns ;ldlt cWoIf nIdLbf; dfgGw/n] lnld6]8n] ;/sf/n] lbPsf] lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug]{ eGb} sfo{If]q lj:tf/sf nflu ;/sf/;Fu cg'/f]w ug{' ePsf] lyof] .

jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ ;lrj hgfb{g g]kfn tyf /Iff ;lrj cfTdf/fd kf08]n] ;fN6 6«]l8ª lnld6]8n] b]zsf b'u{d If]qdf k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf] ;]jfnfO{ yk k|efjsf/L agfpg cfu|x ub}{ ljZjf; lhTb} uPdf ;/sf/n] yk ;]jf ;~rfng ug{ lbg] arg lbg'eof] .

hgtfsf  ;a} 3/df cfof]l8go'Qm g"g k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf] lnld6]8n] ;/sf/af6 yk If]qdf ;]jf ug{ kfpg] ck]Iff /fv]sf] 5 . vfB, £o" Uof;, g"g, /a/, OG:of]/]G;, x:tsnf;d]tsf] ;]jf lb+b} cfPsf]df cGo s]xL ;]jf yk ug{ klg 6«]l8ªn] ;/sf/sf] Wofgfsif{0f u/fPsf] 5 . ;f]xL cj;/df lnld6]8n] ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTjcGtu{t kz'klt If]qdf /x]sf] j[4f>dnfO{ @ j6f jftfg's'lnt d]l;g pknAw u/fPsf] 5 eg] bfªsf] afn zflGt SnanfO{ %) xhf/ ?lkofF k'/:sf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . lnld6]8sf sd{rf/Lsf 5f]/f5f]/LdWo] k|j]lzsfdf  pTs[i6 c+s Nofpg] cfefif Gof}kfg] -*^=#* k|ltzt_ / k|s[lt yfkf -*)=^# k|ltzt_ nfO{ @ jif{;Dd dfl;s @ xhf/ 5fqj[lQ ljt/0f ug{'sf ;fy} @) jif{ ;]jf u/]sf sd{rf/LnfO{ dGqL sf]O/fnfn] ;Ddfgkq k|bfg ug{' ePsf] lyof] .

sfo{qmddf ;fN6 6«]l8ªsf sd{rf/L sx]Gb|k|;fb e"iffn / df]xgk|;fb a/fnnfO{ pTs[i6 sfo{ ;Dkfbs d"Nofª\sgsf cfwf/df k'/:s[t ul/Psf] lyof] . k'/:s[t tyf sd{rf/L o'lgogsf k|ltlglwx¿ xl/k|;fb e§/fO{, d]3/fh bjf8L, ef]nfgfy of]uLn] lnld6]8n] cfufdL lbgdf ug'{kg]{ sfdsf af/]dfrrf{ ug{'ePsf] lyof] .


bz}+ ltxf/df k|e'sf] gofF of]hgf

k|e' ljsf; a}+sn] bz}+ltxf/h:tf dxfg\ rf8sf] cj;/df uf8L, 3/ / ;fgf Joj;fo shf{df gofF of]hgf ;'? u/]sf] 5 . a}+sn] lghL uf8L vl/b ug{ rfxg] JolQmnfO{ nlIft u/]/ !) bzdnj (( k|ltzt b]lv !! bzdnj (( k|ltzt jflif{s Aofhb/df …gofF c6f] nf]gÚ ;'? u/]sf] xf] . of] shf{ u|fxsn] cf7 jif{;Dd e'QmfgL ug{'kg{] 5 . of] of]hgfcGtu{t Ps jif{kl5 shf{ r'Qmf ug{ rfx]df clu|d e'QmfgL z'Ns gnfUg] Joj:yf u/]sf] a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5 . To;}u/L a}+sn] jflif{s ;f9] !) b]lv ;f9] !@ k|ltzt Aofhb/df @% jif{] e'QmfgL cjlw /x]sf] 3/shf{ klg a}+sn] ;'? u/]sf] 5 . lghL k|of]hgsf nflu hUuf tyf 3/ lsGg cfjf;Lo 3/ agfpg, 3/sf] dd{t tyf ;Def/ ug{ C0f k|bfg ul/g] hgfOPsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} a}+sn] ;fgf tyf demf}nf Joj;foLnfO{ nlIft u/L ;fgf Joj;foL shf{ klg ;'? u/]sf] 5 . hf]z hfFu/ ePsf o'jfsf nflu ;/n ;'ne lsl;daf6 shf{ k|bfg ug{] u/L ;fgf Joj;fo shf{ ;'? ul/Psf] a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5 . c;f/ d;fGtdf tLg ljQLo ;+:yf dh{ eP/ k|e' ljsf; a}+s ag]sf] lyof] . xfn of] a}+s;Fu * ca{ @# s/f]8 ?lkofFsf] lgif]k 5 eg] % ca{ ?lkofFsf] shf{ nufgL u/]sf] 5 . ;f9] &^ s/f]8 ?lkofF r'Qmf k'FhL ePsf] a}+sn] ut cfly{s jif{df * s/f]8 &@ nfv ?lkofF gfkmf u/]sf] lyof] .


tfdfªnfO{ cfOPdO{sf] l6eL

cfO{PdO{ bz}+df P;Pn;L of]hgfcGtu{t sf7df8f}+ af}4 lgjf;L dldtf df]Qmfg tfdfªn] #@ O~rsf] ;fd;'ª PnO{8L 6]lnlehg k|fKt u/]sL l5g\ . ut ;ftf Ps sfo{qmdaLr cfO{PdO{sf ahf/ tyf Jofkf/ k|a4{g k|d'v 8]lgon 8L >]i7n] lah]tf tfdfªnfO{ l6eL x:tfGt/0f u/] . ebf} ! b]lv ;'? of] of]hgf c;f]h #) ut];Dd rNg] hgfOPsf] 5 . of]hgfcGtu{t cfO{PdO{n] ;]jfu|fxLdWo] b}lgs Ps hgfnfO{ ;fd;'ª :df6{kmf]g k|bfg ub{} cfPsf] 5 .


l;len / PlS;;aLr ;Demf}tf

l;len ;d"x cGtu{t sf] l;len a}+s lnld6]8n] ef/tdf /x]sf g]kfnLx¿n] cfh{g u/]sf] /]ld6\ofG; g]kfn leœofpg] ePsf] 5 . ef/taf6 /]ld6\ofG; leœofpg l;len a}+sn] ef/tLo PlS;; a}+s;Fu ;Demf}tf u/]sf] 5 . ;Demf}tfkqdf l;len a}+ssf k|d'v ;~rfng clws[t ;j{]Gb| ld> / PlS;; a}+s l/6]n ;le{;]hsf l;lgo/ EjfO; k|]l;8]G6 /fh s] k|;fbn] x:tfIf/ u/]sf 5g\ . ef/taf6 g]kfndf l;len a}+ssf] vftfdf jf cGo s'g} klg ljQLo ;+:Yfdf /x]sf] vftfdf /sd k7fpg ;lsg] Joj:yf u/]sf] l;len a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5 . PlS;; a}+sn] ef/tsf ljleGg 7fpFdf b'O{ xhf/ zfvfdfkm{t\ a}lsª ;]jf k|bfg ub{} cfPsf] 5 .


otLåf/f afnaflnsfnfO{ dfpG6]g k\mnfO6

:t/Lo / e/kbf{] ;]jf k|bfg ub{} cfO/x]sf] otL Po/nfOG;n] afn dlGb/df cfa4 /x]sf !* c;xfo afnaflnsfnfO{ dfpG6]g ˆnfO6 u/fPsf] 5 . /fli6«o afn lbj; tyf Joj;fo ;'? u/]sf] !% jif{ k"/f ePsf] cj;/df Po/nfOG;n] zlgaf/ laxfg ;f9] & ah] sf7df8f}+af6 p8fg e/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .  o:tf] sfo{n] afnaflnsfsf] a'l4 ljsf;df 7"nf] ;xof]u k'Ug] sDkgLn] hgfPsf] 5 . Po/nfOG;sf] of] k|of;n] c;xfo afnaflnsfsf] dgf]an pRr u/fpg] / dfgl;s ¿kdf pgLx¿nfO{ gofF pmhf{ ylkg] ljZjf; lnOPsf] hgfOPsf] 5 .


8'd|]df ;g/fOhsf] %)cf} zfvf

;g/fOh a}+sn] tgx'Fsf] 8'd|]df cfˆgf] %)cf}+ zfvf :yfkgf u/L ;]jf lj:tf/ u/]sf] 5 . ;f] zfvfsf] pb\3f6g ut a'waf/ Ps ;df/f]xaLr a}=ssf ;~rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf df]tLnfn b'u8n] u/]sf lyP . pb\3f6g ;df/f]xdf af]Nb} cWoIf b'u8n] of] zfvfaf6 cfw'lgs a}lsª ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] hgfPsf lyP . ;g/fOhsf] xfn @% ca{ #^ s/f]8 ?lkofF lgIf]k /x]sf] 5 eg] @) ca{ %$ s/f]8 ?lkofF shf{ nufgL /x]sf] 5 . r'Qmf k'FhL @ ca{ ! s/f]8 %) nfv ?lkofF /x]sf] 5 . a}+sn] %) zfvf / %* P6LPd sfpG6/af6 @ nfv !^ xhf/eGbf a9L u|fxsnfO{ cfw'lgs a}lsª ;]jf k|bfg ul//x]sf] 5 . a}+sn] cfpFbf lbgdf cfˆgf] ;]jf cem lj:tf/ ug{] k|lta4tf hgfPsf] 5 .


l;l6hG; a}+s / l;hL PS;k|];aLr ;Demf}tf

Joj:yfkg kIf dha't dflgPsf] l;l6hG; a}+s OG6/g]zgn / l;hL PS;k|];aLr /]ld6\ofG; ;]jf k|efjsf/L ¿kdf ;~rfng ug{sf nflu ;xsfo{ ug{ ljifodf ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 . ;Demf}tfdf a}+ssf tk{maf6 k|d'v ;~rfng clws[t u0f]z/fh kf]v/]n / l;hL dgL PS;k|];sf tk{maf6 gfoa dxfk|aGws /f]lxt u'?ªn] x:tfIf/ u/]sf] a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5 . ;Demf}tfkZrft l;hLsf ljleGg d'n'saf6 cfPsf] /sd l;l6hG; a}+ssf #% j6f zfvfdfkm{t\ e'QmfgL lng ;lsg] ;d]t a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5 . of] ;d]t u/]/ a}+sn] xfn;Dd l;6L PS;k|];, PS;k|]; dgL, l/nfoan /]ld6, k|e' dgLnufotsf sDkgLx¿;Fu ;Demf}tf ul/Psf] hgfOPsf] 5 .


g]kfnL hgtfsf] Ps dfq sdhf]/L

d]3/fh 1jfnL

@)^@–)^# ;fndf ;8sdf hg ;d'b|sf 7"nf7"nf 5fnx¿ pn{]sf] b]lvof] t/ Tof] hg;d'b| :jt:k"mt{ eGbf klg afWotfn] ;8sdf kf]lvPsf] eL8 lyof] . !) jif{sf] lx+;fTds åGbaf6 b]z tafxL ePsf] lyof] . lx+;fTds åGbaf6 b]z yfls;s]sf] lyof] . yk lx+;fsf] kL8f b]zn] ;xg ;Sg] cj:yf lyPg . htftt} d[To' dfq} b]Vb} cfPsf g]kfnL hgtf cfˆgf] hLjgb]lv klg lg/fz eO;s]sf lyP . b]zsf] *) k|ltzt u|fdL0f e"–efu -dfcf]jfbL_ sf] lgoGqdf lyof] . To;sf/0f ufpFx¿df g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_sf] pbL{ nfUf" x'GYof] . dcf]jfbLsf] cfb]z gdfGg]x¿n] of t ufpF 5f]8]/ efUg'kb{Yof] cyjf dfcf]jfbLn] lbg] h'g;'s} ;hfo ef]Ug tof/ x'g' kb{Yof] . To:tf] cj:yfdf dfcf]jfbLsf sfo{stf{x¿n] ufpF–ufFpaf6 hgtfnfO{ lhNnf ;b/d'sfddf h'n'; ug{, efu lng k7fpFy] . h'n';df guP ufpFd} dl/g], h'n';df uP ;/sf/L ;]gfn] dfg]{ . …tfjfaf6 pk|m]sf] df5f] e'+u|f]df / e'+u|f]af6 pk|m]sf] df5f] tfjfdfÚ h:tf] xfn lyof] g]kfnL hgtfsf] . @)^@–)^# sf] hgcfGbf]ngsf] s'/f ubf{ hgtfsf] Tof] bzf / dd{nfO{ pk]Iff ug{ ;lsFb}g . o;sf] cy{ dxfg\ g]kfnL hgtfsf] alnbfgnfO{ pk]Iff ug{ vf]h]sf] xf]Og . g]]kfnL /fhgLlts rl/qsf] klxrfg dfq ug{ vf]h]sf] xf] . g]kfnL hgtf ;fFRr}sf dxfg\ g} x'g\ . dxfg\ 5g\ . dxfg\ /xg]5g\ . 

l lxdfno 6fOD; b}lgs


;'lw|+b} uPsf] /fhgLlts kl/b[Zo

Zofd >]i7

ul/g'kg]{ dxTjk"0f{ ;'wf/ eg]sf] /fhgLltnfO{ :yfoL k]zf agfpg] k];]j/ /fhg]tf ju{sf] cGt xf] . xfdLsxfF k]z]j/ /fhg]tfsf] h'g k|0ffnL 5 To;n] ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfeGbf / ;dfheGbf dfly /xg vf]Hg] / /fhgLltnfO{ g} Jofkf/–Joj;fo agfP/ vfg vf]Hg] Pp6f 5'§} k/hLjL gf]s/zfx ju{ k}bf u/sf] 5 . /fhgLlt of] ju{sf] 7]Ssfsf] ljifo ePsf] x'g] u5{ ;j{;fwf/0f hgtf pgLx¿sf ;fd' r];sf uf]6L em}F lg/Lx / clwsf/ljxLg x'g] u/]sf 5g\ . hgtfdfly zf;g ug{ h] u/]/ eP klg ;Qfdf l6Sg' / o;sf nflu hfnem]n, if8\oGq, cg}lts cfocfh{gnufot ;a}yf]s ug'{ / xd];f ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfdfly xfjL x'g' k];]j/ /fhg]tfsf] d'Vo k|j[lQ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . of] l:yltsf] cGt ug'{ g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ug'{kg]{ dxTjk"0f{ ;'wf/ xf] . ca g]kfndf k]z]j/ g]tf g} g/xg] k|0ffnL l;h{gf ug'{ h?/L 5 . To;sf] abnfdf ;fdflhs hLjgsf x/]s ju{ / k]zfaf6 k|ltlglwTjsf] sfd ;s]kl5 km]l/ ToxL k];fdf kms{g] u/L ;]jfefjsf ;fy hgk|ltlglw– g]tf r'lgP/ hfg] gofF k|0ffnL a;fNg' h?/L 5 .

l uf]/vfkq b}lgs


xfd|f] kf6L{sf] gLlt t hgljb|f]x g} xf]

v8\uaxfb'/ ljZjsdf{

xfd|f] kf6L{sf] :ki6 gLlt t hgljb|f]x g} xf] . of] /fHo;Qfsf] cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] lglDt hgljb|f]x clgjfo{ 5 . hgljb|f]x eg]sf] ;+3if{sf] pTsif{ xf], h?/L 5 . of] xfd|f] l;4fGt / gLlt g} xf] . t/, clxn] tTsfn g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df xfdLn] rfx]sf] /fhgLlts em8k klg xf]Og, clxn]sf] ;dfwfg, ;/sf/n] yf]kg{ vf]h]sf] o'4 klg xf]Og . clxn]sf] ;dfwfg eg]sf] ;dembf/L / ;xdlt g} xf] . xfdLn] clxn] oxL gLlt cufl8 a9fPsf 5f}+ / o;}df hf]8 ul//x]sf 5f}F . t/, Tof] ;xdlt cu|ufdL x'g'k¥of] eGg] g} xf] . ;xdltaf6 lgsfnf}+eGbf jftf{af6 lgsf; lgsfnf}+eGbf, 6]anaf6 lgsf; vf]hf}+eGbf pxfFx¿n] xfd|flj?4df sfo{ ug]{, xfdLnfO{ gh/cGbfh ug]{ xfd|f lj?4 k|ltlqmofjfbL if8\oGq / xs{t ug]{, cem} r'gfjsf] gfddf o'lgkmfO8 sdf08 /fHosf] ;'/Iff zlQm k|of]u ug]{ sfo{ yfn] eg] d"v{x¿nfO{ 5"6 lbg] s'/f x'Fb}g . To;sf] k|ltjfb g]kfnL hgtfn] ug'{k5{, To;sf] g]t[Tj dfcf]jfbLn] u5{ .

l If]Kof:q ;fKtflxs   


lsg x]lkG5 g]kfnL dg <

k|bLk g]kfn

xfd|f] b]z e"kl/j]li7t d'n's xf] . t/ e"kl/j]li7t d'n'sn] kfpg'kg]{ egL n]lvPsf cGt/f{li6«o dfGotfsf] clwsf/ ef/t xfdLnfO{ lbg} rfxFb}g . k|wfgdGqL eO;s]sf cfwf bh{g ;Ddflgt gful/sx¿ clxn] klg hLljt} 5g\ . pgLx¿ hgtfnfO{ lsg ;To atfpFb}gg\ < ef/tsf] af6f] cfpg] t]n dxFuf] x'Fbf xfdL rLglt/af6 t]n Nofpg lsg NofpFb}gf}F <

7"nfn] ;fgfnfO{ x]Kg' ;fj{ef}d rl/q xf] . lxhf] a]nfotL ;fd|fHodf 3fd c:tfpFb}gYof] . ljZjo'4sf] k'5f/df cd]l/sfn] ;+;f/nfO{ t;f{pgsf nflu dfq} lx/f]l;df / gfuf;fsLdf sNkgftLt g/;+xf/ u/]sf] lyof] . sf]l/of / letgfddflysf] cfqmd0f klg k'/fg} eof] . clxn] Tof] ckmuflg:tfg / dWok"j{sf b]zx¿df hfOnfu]sf] 5 . To;}sf] l;sf] u/]/ ef/t blIf0f Pl;ofdf hd]sf] 5 . ;Tosf kIfdf pleg] ;fx; u/f}+ sDtLdf klg h]dfklg ef/tsf] xft b]Vg]x¿n] tL xftx¿ hgtfnfO{ b]vfOlbpmg\ . cfˆgf] cfu|xk"0f{ lj/f]w xf]Og, tYosf l8ndf pleP/ ef/tn] u/]sf k|fdfl0fs x:tIf]kx¿sf] Zj]tkq hf/L u/]/ g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ ;r]t t'Nofcf}+ .

l sflGtk'/


;+3Lotfsf] ef/LM glgDTofcf];\ u2f/L

ctLGb| bfxfn

kl5Nnf] ;do ;Dk"0f{ ljZjsf] Wofgfsif{0f u/fpFb} pRr k|ult u/]sf 6fOu/ Osf]gf]dL eg]/ lrlgg] hfkfg, l;+ufk'/ yfONofG8, ;fpbL c/]laof, s'j]th:tf glhssf l5d]sLaf6 xfdLn] ;xL kf7 l;Sg'k5{ . cfly{s k|ultnfO{ klxnf] cfwf/ lbg'k5{ . /fhgLlt ca ljsf;, jftfj/0f, k|ljlw, ;~rf/h:tf s'/fx¿sf nflu x'g'k5{ . /fhgLlts ;f}bfafhL / zAbsf nflu xf]Og . ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cEof;nfO{ ;an / k|efjsf/L agfpg' g} g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf pQd ;+3Lo cEof; x'g ;S5 . clxn] ePsf kfFr ljsf; If]qnfO{ g} km/s–km/s k|zf;lgs PsfO dfgL :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g k|0ffnLn] ljsf; u/]sf cjwf/0ffx¿nfO{ /fd|/L cjnDag u/] ;+3Lotfn] cfzf u/]sf ;a} pknlAw k|fKt x'g]5g\ . sfd lbg / sfdåf/f k|dfl0ft ug{ c;kmn g]t[Tjn]] gful/snfO{ s'/fsf] w/ftndf cndNofpF5 . ef]ln km]l/ cfdgful/sn] cfzf u/sf] kl/jt{g gePkl5 ;+3Lotf To;sf] afws ePsf] eGb} csf]{ /fhgLlts gf/fdf hgtfnfO{ em'Sofpg vf]Hg]5g\ . efjgfn] b]z rNb}g . sfo{qmd, of]hgf clg OR5fzlQm rflxG5 . gLltdf eGbf g]tfx¿sf] lgotdf b]zsf] eljio c8]sf] x'G5 . ;+3Lotfdflysf] lgotrflxF lgsf; / ljsf; lbg] eGb} c?nfO{ cndNofpg] / cfˆgf] gfnfosLkgf 9fs5f]k ug]{ j}wflgs cfwf/ agfpg]df dfq} cl8Psf] 5 . unt Joj:yfkg ug{'eGbf a? To;df xft gxfNg' g} 7ls x'G5 .

To;}n] lgjf{rg cl3 g} j}wflgs ¿kdf ;+3Lotfsf] Joj:yfkgf jf ;xdltdf g} :yug gug]{ xf] eg] ;+ljwfg;efsf] csf]{ r'gfj klg k'/fgf] gf6ssf] gofF d~rg dfq} x'g]5 .

l /fhwfgL b}lgs


;"rgf ljefusf] s8fOkl5 gSsnL kqsf/ 36]

sf7df8f}+÷ ;"rgf ljefuaf6 ljt/0f x'g] kqsf/ kl/rokq ljt/0fdf ut jif{sf] t'ngfdf o; jif{ cfwfeGbf a9L ;+Vof 36]sf] 5 . kl/rokq lngsf nflu :jo+ JolQm g} ljefudf pkl:yt x'g'kg{] lgod nfu" ePkl5 gSsnL kqsf/x¿ knfog ePsf sf/0f kl/rokq lng]x¿sf] ;+Vofdf sdL cfPsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . ut cfly{s jif{df # xhf/ ! ;o (# hgfn] ljefuaf6 kl/rokq lnPsf]df o; jif{ ebf} clGtd;Dd ! xhf/ @ ;o %# hgfn] dfq} kqsf/ kl/rokq lnPsf 5g\ . kl/rokq jfxssf] 98\8fdf x:tfIf/lagf kl/rokq lbOPsf] 5}g . ljefusf cg';f/ @)#@ ;fnb]lv xfn;Dd ljefuaf6 !& xhf/ @ ;o && hgfn] kqsf/ kl/ro kq lnPsf 5g\ .

ljefun] kqklqsf, /]l8of] / 6]lnlehgdf cfjZostfcg';f/ k|];kf; pknAw u/fpFb} cfPsf] 5 eg] cgnfOgsf nflu ^ hgfnfO{ dfq kl/rokq lbOPsf] 5 . ;"rgf ljefudf xfn;Dd ^ xhf/ & ;o ( j6f kqklqsf, !^ j6f 6]lnlehg, ! ;o @@ j6f /]l8of], !! j6f ldl8of xfp; / !% j6f cgnfOg ;"rLs[t ePsf 5g\ . To;}u/L ljefun] o; jif{af6 kfFr} j6f ljsf; If]qdf kqsf/ kl/rokq gjLs/0f ug{sf nflu 3'DtL lzlj/ ;~rfng ug{] hgfPsf] 5 . Go'gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ;ldltn] ;a} ;~rf/u[xdf Go'gtd kfl/>lds nfu" ug{ lgb{]zg lbPkl5 ;"rgf ljefuaf6 kl/rokq lngsf nflu clgjfo{ Go'gtd kfl/>lds;lxtsf] lgo'lQmkq k]z ug{'kg{] k|fjwfg k|efjsf/L ¿kdf nfu" ul/Psf] 5 .


n]vkfn;Fu tLg gful/stf

sf7df8f}+÷ lrtjg lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf n]vfkfn p4j bfxfnnfO{ tLgj6f gful/stf agfPsf] cf/f]kdf cf]vn9'[+ufdf kqmfp ul/Psf] 5 . cFw]/Lgf/fo0f:yfg–% cf]vnb'Ëf :yfoL 7]ufgf ePsf bfxfnnfO{ 3/df k'u]sf] df}sfdf k|x/Ln] kqmfp u/]sf] yfxf ePsf] 5 . bfxfnn] tLg j6f gful/stf km/s–km/s ldlt / 7fpFaf6 lnPsf] cf/f]kdf tLg jif{cl3 clVtof/df ph'/L k/]sf] lyof] . clVtof/sf] kqadf]lhd lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nosf] lgb]{zgdf pgnfO{ k|x/Ln] kqmfp u/]sf] xf] .

bfxfnn] @)## ;fn df3 @) ut] klxnf] gfulstf !& jif{sf] pd]/df x'4jk|;fb bfxfnsf gfddf / @)$) ;fndf km/s ldltdf ;Kt/L lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{noaf6 gful/stfsf] k|df0fkq lnPsf] k|x/Lsf] 7DofO 5 . bfxfnn] eg] gfd kl/jt{g ubf{ clen]vdf csf]{ gfd kg{ uPsf] bfjL u/]sf 5g\ .


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