Generic Klonopin yellow pill
Buy Ambien online cheap
Lorazepam with liver failure
Buy Phentermine kansas
Buy Ativan visa
Prescription Ambien alcohol
Buy Klonopin online overnight
Adipex without doctor
Buy Clonazepam india
Clonazepam prescription prices
Buy Phentermine pills
Ambien buy online no prescription
Valium 10mg no prescription needed
Ambien 5mg tablet side effects
Buy Soma 445ns
Buy Lorazepam online cheap
Cheap Ativan for sale
Buy Ativan from mexico
Ambien pills buy
Order Lorazepam cheap
Buy Ativan no prescription mastercard
Provigil canada pharmacy many
Ambien cr online
Canada pharmacies online Provigil
Generic Clonazepam wholesale
Ambien generic Ambien cr Ambien generic
Provigil rx com
Where to buy Ambien in mexico
Cheap Provigil
Buy Ambien without rx
Ambien prescription assistance
Order Phentermine weight loss
Clonazepam prescription
Lorazepam online pharmacy
Ambien road atherstone property for sale
Generic Ambien work well
Buy Clonazepam 2mg
Buy Lorazepam cash on delivery
Xanax xr generic name
Buy Provigil europe
Lorazepam with alcohol
Lorazepam with paroxetine
Order Adipex tablets
Ambien sale no prescription
Phentermine online free
Cost of generic Valium
Order Zolpidem cod saturday
Xanax online mexico
Ativan online no prescription
Buy Lorazepam tabs
Ambien buy usa
Ambien dosage 15 mg
Ambien online blogs
Provigil online canada
Lorazepam with a prescription
Zolpidem prescription walgreens
Provigil prescription buy
Generic Zolpidem tartrate
Lorazepam with amitriptyline
Lorazepam with alcohol side effects
What does Xanax 1 mg look like
Ativan prescription
Buy Clonazepam 1 mg
Buy Ativan drug
Mixing Lorazepam with alcohol
Buy Valium 5mg
Ativan prescription online
Clonazepam with muscle relaxer
Cheap Tramadol hcl
Buy Ativan forum
Buy Tramadol sr
Buy Xanax online nz
Ambien cr generic 12.5 mg
Buy Ativan no rx
Generic Xanax g3722
Order Soma mexico
Generic Ambien same
Lorazepam with advil
Valium 10mg value street
Buy Adipex p uk
Lorazepam with propranolol
Modafinil online generic
Cheap Valium sale uk
Buy Zolpidem now
Carisoprodol prescription
Soma sale
Purchase Phentermine weight loss
Order Soma tramadol
Lorazepam with pregnancy
Buy Ativan uk
Generic Lorazepam pills
Diazepam prescription online
Tramadol uk buy
Cheap Tramadol medication
Generic Provigil date
Buy Clonazepam no rx
Buy Valium steroids
Tramadol online 100mg
Order Ambien cheap online
Order Phentermine online mexico
Lorazepam prescription help
Ambien doses in mg
Generic Modafinil 2012
Order Tramadol line
Tramadol prescription only drug
Valium and seizure disorder
Buy Soma email
Buy Ativan without rx
Xanax online mastercard
Xanax do you need a prescription
Buy Ativan cod Ativan cod delivery
Klonopin prescription cost
Buy Ativan now
Cheap Ativan visa
Lorazepam online mastercard
Soma canada steel
Adipex online forum
Valium for anxiety disorder
Generic Clonazepam 2mg
Ambien apo 10mg
Provigil online canadian pharmacy
Order Soma mexico
Lorazepam rx 774
Ultram online purchase
Clonazepam with lorazepam
Ambien dosage 10 mg
Ativan sale canada
Cheap Ativan no prescription
Valium picture generic
Lorazepam with no prescription
Ambien and mg
Generic Ambien overnight delivery
Provigil online no prescription needed
Cheap Phentermine prescription
Ambien online purchase
Buy Lorazepam cod
Alprazolam online from canada
Buy Soma prescription

Connecting terrestrial ‘islands’ to promote biodiversity

Privacy Policy

This year, the UN has declared ‘Island Biodiversity’ as the theme for celebrating International Day for Biological Diversity. The world’s islands are home to about 600 million people – 10 per cent of the world’s population. These islands are also home to some unique species of plants and animals that are found nowhere else in the world. For example, the kangaroo is found only in Australia, the flightless kiwi bird is found only in New Zealand, and the now extinct dodo – another flightless bird – was found only in Mauritius. Australia, New Zealand and Mauritius are all island countries.

‘Islands’ – the word generally conjures images of areas of land surrounded by water. For conservationists, islands take on another meaning when pockets of pristine land areas rich in biodiversity exist amidst intensive areas of human settlements, agriculture or industrialization. These ‘islands’ are generally home to numerous species of plants, birds, insects and animals. At a larger scale, many of these ecologically significant islands have been set aside as areas to protect plants and wildlife.

Animals, particularly large animals, must move, and thus require large areas of habitat for their survival. Often, when animals travel outside their ‘islands’ of protected areas, they enter human settlements and destroy crops, livestock, and even human life, resulting in what conservationists term ‘human-wildlife conflicts’. Humans generally respond to such wildlife intrusions by exterminating them through various means – a process termed as ‘retaliatory killing.’

One of the methods by which the habitat of large animals can be increased is by connecting protected areas through wildlife ‘corridors’. These corridors can be instrumental in connecting fragmented habitat islands and thereby facilitating wildlife movement. Corridors also promote interbreeding, which results in genetic diversity within the wildlife population.

The Kanchenjunga Landscape is one of seven landscape initiatives in the Hindu Kush Himalayas where the ecosystem approach is being used with a focus on connecting islands of protected areas through conservation corridors. This initiative is a trans-boundary program involving the governments of Bhutan, India, and Nepal. The program aims to develop connectivity between the 20 isolated protected areas in the landscape through a network of conservation corridors extending from eastern Nepal, through the states of Sikkim and northern West Bengal in India, to western Bhutan. These corridors will facilitate the movement of species, such as the endangered snow leopard at the higher elevations, and Bengal tiger and Asian elephant at the lower elevations.

The Kanchenjunga Landscape is part of the Eastern Himalaya ‘Biodiversity Hotspot’ where there is high level of biodiversity, much of which is facing severe threats from humans. The landscape hosts a significantly high number of plants and is home to at least six species of endangered animals including the snow leopard, Himalayan musk deer, Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, and one-horned rhino, among others. The trademark plant species of the landscape is the rhododendron – at least 45 species of which are found in the landscape. The landscape is also home to approximately seven million women and men, some of whom belong to distinct ethnic groups, such as the Lepchas and the Walungs.

Despite the ecological significance of the Kanchenjunga Landscape, there is much we need to know about the biodiversity and socio-economy of the region. During a recent review process for understanding the state of knowledge on biodiversity in the landscape, about 850 published and unpublished documents were recorded. The first recorded study in the landscape was conducted more than 170 years ago on the Lepchas of Sikkim by Archibald Campbell, the British political agent to Sikkim and Darjeeling in the East India Company. This was followed by the work of the notable British naturalist Joseph Dalton Hooker, who published an account of his botanical expedition in the Kanchenjunga region in two volumes of The Himalayan Journals in 1854. Subsequently, research interest in the Kanchenjunga landscape increased significantly only three decades later in the 1980s. Much of the information gathered in the area was focused on animals and plants, with the red panda being the most researched animal species in the landscape. Over 80 per cent of the research has been conducted in the Indian portion of the Kanchenjunga Landscape, only 9 per cent has been conducted in Nepal and just 4 per cent took place in the Bhutan portion of the landscape.

Why is it important to know about the biodiversity in the Kanchenjunga Landscape? There are an estimated 8.7 million species of organisms in the world. Among these, only 1.2 million species have been identified till date – representing only 14 per cent of the total biodiversity in the world. Accordingly, we have probably identified only a third of the total number of species in the Kanchenjunga Landscape. Much of the gaps in our knowledge exist in relation to species other than plants and animals, i.e. on fish, amphibians, insects, fungi, and bacteria. Not much has been done to know the status of these relatively neglected life forms.
Knowledge about biodiversity is crucial to understanding their roles in the ecosystem and therefore for their effective management. Biodiversity is a natural capital that provides a number of ecosystem services in the Kanchenjunga Landscape, including providing food, timber, fiber and medicines – all things we depend on. It is also an important source of income for many local people living in the landscape. Therefore, gaining in-depth knowledge on biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions is extremely important for the well-being of the communities within the Kanchenjunga Landscape, as well as for the global community.

Janita Gurung ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ) is Biodiversity Conservation and Management Specialist and Pratikshya Kandel ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ) is Research Associate for Biodiversity at the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).



Google Plus